• OUR LADY of CZĘSTOCHOWA: st Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionOUR LADY of CZĘSTOCHOWA
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
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Roman Catholic
St Sigismund parish
05-507 Słomczyn
85 Wiślana Str.
Konstancin deanery
Warsaw archdiocese, Poland

  • St SIGISMUND: St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
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Martyrology of the clergy — Poland

XX century (1914 – 1989)

personal data

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  • KOWALSKI Joseph, source: www.russiacristiana.org, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOKOWALSKI Joseph
    source: www.russiacristiana.org
    own collection

surname

KOWALSKI

forename(s)

Joseph (pl. Józef)

  • KOWALSKI Joseph - Commemorative plaque, St Stanislaus church, Sankt Petersburg, source: ipn.gov.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOKOWALSKI Joseph
    Commemorative plaque, St Stanislaus church, Sankt Petersburg
    source: ipn.gov.pl
    own collection

function

diocesan priest

creed

Latin (Roman Catholic) Churchmore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2014.09.21]

diocese / province

Zhytomyr diocesemore on
www.catholic-hierarchy.org
[access: 2021.12.19]

date and place of death

03.11.1937

Sandarmokhtoday: Medvezhyegorsk reg., Karelia rep., Russia
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2022.07.16]

details of death

Ordained in secret.

Arrested by the Russians on 16/17.05.1929 (29.05.1929) with a group of Catholics.

Jailed in Biała Cerkiew and next in Kiev.

Accused of „anti–Russian propaganda and agitation”, „participation in clandestine illegal theological seminary” and „counter–revolutionary activities for Poland”.

During the 10‑12.05.1930 trial sentenced by the Russians — by the murderous Russian „Troika OGPU” kangaroo court — to 10 years of slave labour.

On 26.05.1930 jailed in Yaroslav on Volga river prison.

On 27.09.1933 deported Solovetsky Islands concentration camp where slaved at forest clearances.

In 1935 held in special Savatyev camp.

In 09.1937 locked in a prison cell.

On 09.10.1937 sentenced by another Russian genocidal „Troika NKVD” kangaroo court — to death.

Transported out of Solovetsky Islands and murdered at a mass execution site in Sandormach village n. Medviezhyegorsk.

cause of death

mass murder

perpetrators

Russians

date and place of birth

17.06.1898

Yeleninkhutor
today: Shepetivka rai., Proskuriv/Khmelnytskyi obl., Ukraine

alt. dates and places of birth

18.08.1898

Novoselytsiatoday: Polonne rai., Proskuriv/Khmelnytskyi obl., Ukraine

presbyter (holy orders)/
ordination

04.12.1928 (Sankt Petersburgtoday: Saint Petersburg city, Russia)

positions held

till 1929

priest {parish: Fastivtoday: Fastiv rai., Kiev obl., Ukraine
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2020.11.27]
, Exaltation of the Holy Cross; dean.: Kievtoday: Kiev city obl., Ukraine}

till 1929

priest {parish: Zaslavtoday: Zaslav rai., Proskuriv/Khmelnytskyi obl., Ukraine
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.09.17]
, St Joseph Spouse of the Blessed Virgin Mary; church: Shepetivkatoday: Shepetivka rai., Proskuriv/Khmelnytskyi obl., Ukraine
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.09.17]
; dean.: Zaslavtoday: Zaslav rai., Proskuriv/Khmelnytskyi obl., Ukraine
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.09.17]
}, from time to time

1924 – 1928

student {Sankt Petersburgtoday: Saint Petersburg city, Russia, philosophy and theology, Catholic Theological Seminary — clandestine, underground}

student {Kievtoday: Kiev city obl., Ukraine, Institute of Physics and Mathematics}

others related in death

BLECHMANClick to display biography Boleslaus, GRZEGORZEWSKIClick to display biography Stanislaus, LUBOWSKIClick to display biography Bronislaus, MARECKIClick to display biography Bruno, MARKUSZEWClick to display biography, RYBAŁTOWSKIClick to display biography Andrew, BIENIECKIClick to display biography Joseph, BORECKIClick to display biography Stanislaus, KARPIŃSKIClick to display biography Joseph, KASPRZYKOWSKIClick to display biography Stanislaus, KOBEĆClick to display biography Anthony, KRUMMELClick to display biography Joseph, KUROWSKIClick to display biography Anthony, MADERAClick to display biography Peter, MARKUSZEWSKIClick to display biography Albin, MATUSZEWICZClick to display biography Anthony, MIODUSZEWSKIClick to display biography Joseph, PIETKIEWICZClick to display biography Adolph, PROKOPOWICZClick to display biography Theodore, STRONCZYŃSKIClick to display biography Victor, STRUSIEWICZClick to display biography Nicholas, SZYMAŃSKIClick to display biography Vaclav, TUROWSKIClick to display biography Maximilian, ŻMIGRODZKIClick to display biography Joseph, BARANOWSKIClick to display biography Peter, DZIEMIANClick to display biography Joseph, DZIEMIESZKIEWICZClick to display biography Anthony, JARMOŁOWICZClick to display biography Anthony, JUREWICZClick to display biography Boleslaus, KAPUSTOClick to display biography Peter Bernard, ŁUKASZClick to display biography John, ŁUKJANINClick to display biography Joseph, SPALWINI–KRECZETOWClick to display biography Valentine, SZACIŁŁOClick to display biography Albin, WIERZBICKIClick to display biography Joseph, ŻAWRYDClick to display biography John

murder sites
camps (+ prisoner no)

Sandarmokh: Former shooting range of Russian slave labour BelBaltLag concentration camp — n. Powienec village on Onega lake shore, c. 19 km from Bear Hill (Medvezhegorsk), in Karelia republic, a seat of Russian BelBaltLag slave labour concentration camp’s headquarters — where from 11.08.1937 till 27.11.1938 in excess of 9,500 victims from 58 nations, including many Poles, mainly from BelBaltLag concentration camp for prisoners constructing White Sea – Baltic canal and c. 1,111 prisoners from Solovetsky Islands concentration camps on White Sea (c. 250 km from Sandarmokh) were murdered in mass executions. At least 32 priests, including 12 Poles and 11 Germans, one bishop among them, were shot through the back of the head at the site 27.10–04.11.1937. Their remains were unearthed in 1997 — 236 mass grave ditches were discovered spread over c. 10 hectares of land. (more on: www.gulagmuseum.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2014.11.14]
)

09.10.1937 judicial murder: On 09.10.1937 a „Troika NKVD” — a genocidal Russian kangaroo court from Sankt Petersburg consisting of three „summary judges” — sentenced to death, at a single stroke of pen, 1,116 Solovetsky Islands concentration camp’s prisoners. 1,111 names are known — they were murdered in Sandarmokh. The names of the genocidal „judges” are also know. It is also known that on 25.11.1937 similar „Troika NKVD” Russian genocidal kangaroo court sentenced to death few remaining in Solovetsky Islands Catholic priests. All in 12.1937 were transported out towards Sankt Petersburg and murdered prob. in SvirLag camp (or in Sankt Petersburg). (more on: pl.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2016.03.14]
)

11.08.1937 Russian genocide: On 11.08.1937 Russian leader Stalin decided and NKWD head, Nicholas Jeżow, signed a „Polish operation” executive order no 00485. 139,835 Poles living in Russia were thus sentenced summarily to death. According to the records of the „Memorial” International Association for Historical, Educational, Charitable and Defense of Human Rights ” (Rus. Международное историко–просветительское, правозащитное и благотворительное общество „Мемориал”), specialising with historical research and promoting knowledge about the victims of Russian repressions — 111,091 were murdered. 28,744 were sentenced to deportation to concentration camps in Gulag. Altogether however more than 100,000 Poles were deported, mainly to Kazakhstan, Siberia, Kharkov and Dniepropetrovsk. According to some historians, the number of victims should be multiplied by at least two, because not only the named persons were murdered, but entire Polish families (the mere suspicion of Polish nationality was sufficient). Taking into account the fact that the given number does not include the genocide in eastern Russia (Siberia), the number of victims may be as high as 500,000 Poles. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2016.03.14]
)

Great Purge 1937: In the summer of 1937 Polish Catholic priests held in Solovetsky Islands, Anzer Island and BelBaltLag were locked in prison cells (some in Sankt Petersburg). Next in a few kangaroo, murderous Russian trials (on 09.10.1937, 25.11.1937, among others) run by so‑called „Troika NKVD” all were sentenced to death. They were subsequently executed by a single shot to the back of the head. The murders took place either in Sankt Petersburg prison or directly in places of mass murder, e.g. Sandarmokh or Levashov Wilderness, where their bodies were dumped into the ditches. Other priests were arrested in the places they still ministered in and next murdered in local NKVD headquarters (e.g. in Minsk in Belarus), after equally genocidal trials run by aforementioned „Troika NKVD” kangaroo courts.

BelbaltLag: White Sea‑Baltic Sea camp — Russian concentration and forced slave labor camp, under the management of the Gulag camp network (i.e. the genocidal OGPU, and then the NKVD), with the HQ in Medvedevegorsk (then in the Karelo–Finnish rep.) on the White Sea. Established on 16.11.1931, on the basis of the former SLON camp (on the Solovetsky islands). Prisoners slaved on canal construction between the White Sea and the Baltic Sea (the canal itself was opened on.06.1933). Later, prisoners worked in logging forests, in sawmills, in the construction of wood products and paper factories, hydroelectric plants, nickel factories and alcohol distilleries, construction of ports, and laying railway lines. C. 58,965 to 107,900 (1932) prisoners were held in the camp at one time —–e.g. in 1938, there were 3,946 women among them. According to official data, 12,300 perished during the construction of the canal itself — according to unofficial data, from 50,000 to 300,000. One of head managers of the construction of the canal was a Jew, Naftali Frenkel, who went down in history as the author of the principle„We have to squeeze everything out of the prisoner in the first three months — then nothing is there for us”. He was to be the creator, according to Solzhenitsyn, of the so–called „Boiler system”, i.e. the dependence of food rations on working out a certain percentage of the norm. The term ZEK — i.e. prisoner – canal soldier (Rus. заключенный–каналоармец) — was coined in the camp, which was adopted to mean a prisoner in Russian slave labor camps. The camp operated until 18.09.1941, and the entire project — in economic terms — turned out to be a total failure. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2014.05.09]
)

Solovetsky Islands: Solovetsky Special Purpose Camp SLON (ros. Солове́цкий ла́герь осо́бого назначе́ния) — Russian concentration camp and forced labour camp, on Solovetsky Islands, in operation from 1923 and initially founded on the site of famous former Orthodox monastery. Functioned till 1939 (in 1936‑9 as a prison). In 1920 the largest concentration camp in Russia. Place of slave labour and murder of hundreds of mainly Christian, including Catholic, priests, especially in 1920s and 1930s. The concept of future Russian slave labour concentration camps system Gulag its beginnings prob. can trace to camps of Solovetsky Islands — from there spread to the camps along Belamor canal (Baltic Sea — White Sea), and from there to all regions of Russian state. From the network of camps on Solovetsky Islands — also called Solovetsky Archipelago — Alexander Solzhenitsyn prob. formed his famous term of „Gulag Archipelago”. It is estimated that tens to hundreds of thousands prisoners were held in Solovetsky Islands camps. In 1937‑8 c. 9.500 prisoners were brought out of the camp and murdered in a number of execution sites, including Sandarmokh and Lodeynoye Polye, including many Catholic priests. (more on: pl.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2014.05.09]
)

Gulag: Network of Russian slave labour concentration camps. At any given time up to 12 mln inmates where held in them, milions perished. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2014.05.09]
)

Jaroslav on Volga river: Harsh Russian prison for political prisoners — so‑called polit–isolator — where dozens of catholic priest were held by the Russians, mainly in 1930s, before sending them to Solovetsky Islands concentration camp.

Trial of 10—12.05.1930: Group trial of c. 30 Polish Catholic priests, one of a series of trials of Polish Catholic priests ministering in Ukraine, by a so‑called „Troika OGPU”, a Russian murderous kangaroo court that took place in Kiev. Most of the priest were sentences to years of slave labour in concentration camps and subsequently sent first to Yaroslav on Volga river prison and next to Solovetsky Island concentration camp. At least 18 did not return perishing in Russian concentration camps, places of mass executions or being deported to the east.

Kiev (Lyukyanivska): Russian political prison in Kiev run by criminal NKVD. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2014.09.21]
)

sources

personal:
katolicy1844.republika.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2021.12.19]
, sand.mapofmemory.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2019.02.02]
, ru.openlist.wikiClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2019.02.02]
, catholic.ruClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2016.03.14]
, biographies.library.nd.eduClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2014.12.20]

bibliograhical:, „Fate of the Catholic clergy in USSR 1917‑39. Martyrology”, Roman Dzwonkowski, SAC, ed. Science Society KUL, 2003, Lublin,
original images:
www.russiacristiana.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2014.12.20]
, ipn.gov.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2019.02.02]

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