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Roman Catholic
St Sigismund parish
05-507 Słomczyn
85 Wiślana Str.
Konstancin deanery
Warsaw archdiocese, Poland

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Martyrology of the clergy — Poland

XX century (1914 – 1989)

personal data

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surname

KAPUSTO

surname
versions/aliases

KAPUSTA

forename(s)

Peter Bernard (pl. Piotr Bernard)

  • KAPUSTO Peter Bernard - Commemorative plaque, St Stanislaus church, Sankt Petersburg, source: ipn.gov.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOKAPUSTO Peter Bernard
    Commemorative plaque, St Stanislaus church, Sankt Petersburg
    source: ipn.gov.pl
    own collection

function

diocesan priest

creed

Latin (Roman Catholic) Church RCmore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2014.09.21]

diocese / province

Mogilev archdiocesemore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2013.06.23]

date and place
of death

01.11.1937

Sandarmokhtoday: Medvezhyegorsk reg., Karelia rep., Russia
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2022.07.16]

details of death

Prob. in mid 1920s expelled by the Russians from Rosica parish.

Arrested by the Russians in 1931.

Accused by the Russian of tax evasion — set on unrealistic levels.

Accused of espionage and counter–revolutionary activities.

On 23.08.1931 sentenced by the Russians to 10 years of slave labour.

Deported Solovetsky Islands concentration camp.

For a time slaved as a guard in Kyem on White Sea shore.

In 1937 moved to a prison cell.

On 14.10.1937 sentenced to death by the Russian genocidal «NKVD Troika» kangaroo court.

Transported out and murdered in Karelia republic in a mass execution of c. 1,111 Solovetsky Islands prisoners.

cause of death

mass murder

perpetrators

Russians

date and place
of birth

14.03.1891

Zaleszczynotoday: location unknown, Verkhnyadzvinsk dist., Vitebsk reg., Belarus

alt. dates and places
of birth

1886

presbyter (holy orders)
ordination

1917

positions held

parish priest — Mazyrtoday: Mazyr dist., Gomel reg., Belarus
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.12.18]
⋄ RC parish ⋄ Mogilevtoday: Mogilev dist., Mogilev reg., Belarus
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2022.01.06]
RC deanery — also: other, neighboring parishes without a priest

priest — Vitebsktoday: Vitebsk reg., Belarus
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2023.01.18]

from 1919

administrator — Rositsatoday: Sarya ssov., Verkhnyadzvinsk dist., Vitebsk reg., Belarus
more on
be.wikipedia.org
[access: 2023.01.18]
⋄ Holy Trinity RC parish ⋄ Dryssa / Siebieżdeanery names/seats RC deanery

till 1917

student — Sankt Petersburgtoday: Saint Petersburg city, Russia
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2020.07.31]
⋄ philosophy and theology, Metropolitan Theological Seminary

others related
in death

BARANOWSKIClick to display biography Peter, DZIEMIANClick to display biography Joseph, DZIEMIESZKIEWICZClick to display biography Anthony, JARMOŁOWICZClick to display biography Anthony, JUREWICZClick to display biography Boleslav, KARPIŃSKIClick to display biography Joseph, KOWALSKIClick to display biography Joseph, ŁUKASZClick to display biography John, ŁUKJANINClick to display biography Joseph, SPALWINI–KRECZETOWClick to display biography Valentine, SZACIŁŁOClick to display biography Albin, WIERZBICKIClick to display biography Joseph, ŻAWRYDClick to display biography John

murder sites
camp 
(+ prisoner no)

Sandarmokh: Former shooting range of Russian slave labour BelBaltLag concentration camp — n. Powienec village on Onega lake shore, c. 19 km from Bear Hill (Medvezhegorsk), in Karelia republic, a seat of Russian BelBaltLag slave labour concentration camp’s headquarters — where from 11.08.1937 till 27.11.1938 in excess of 9,500 victims from 58 nations, including many Poles, mainly from BelBaltLag concentration camp for prisoners constructing White Sea – Baltic canal and c. 1,111 prisoners from Solovetsky Islands concentration camps on White Sea (c. 250 km from Sandarmokh) were murdered in mass executions. At least 32 priests, including 12 Poles and 11 Germans, one bishop among them, were shot through the back of the head at the site 27.10–04.11.1937. Their remains were unearthed in 1997 — 236 mass grave ditches were discovered spread over c. 10 hectares of land. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2014.11.14]
, www.gulagmuseum.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2014.11.14]
)

09.10.1937 judicial murder: On 09.10.1937 a «NKVD Troika» — a genocidal Russian kangaroo court from Sankt Petersburg consisting of three „summary judges” — sentenced to death, at a single stroke of pen, 1,116 Solovetsky Islands concentration camp’s prisoners. 1,111 names are known — they were murdered in Sandarmokh. The names of the genocidal „judges” are also know. It is also known that on 25.11.1937 similar «NKVD Troika» Russian genocidal kangaroo court sentenced to death few remaining in Solovetsky Islands Catholic priests. All in 12.1937 were transported out towards Sankt Petersburg and murdered prob. in SvirLag camp (or in Sankt Petersburg). (more on: pl.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2016.03.14]
)

11.08.1937 Russian genocide: On 11.08.1937 Russian leader Stalin decided and NKVD head, Nicholas Jeżow, signed a „Polish operation” executive order no 00485. 139,835 Poles living in Russia were thus sentenced summarily to death. According to the records of the „Memorial” International Association for Historical, Educational, Charitable and Defense of Human Rights (Rus. Международное историко–просветительское, правозащитное и благотворительное общество „Мемориал”), specialising with historical research and promoting knowledge about the victims of Russian repressions — 111,091 were murdered. 28,744 were sentenced to deportation to concentration camps in Gulag. Altogether however more than 100,000 Poles were deported, mainly to Kazakhstan, Siberia, Kharkov and Dniepropetrovsk. According to some historians, the number of victims should be multiplied by at least two, because not only the named persons were murdered, but entire Polish families (the mere suspicion of Polish nationality was sufficient). Taking into account the fact that the given number does not include the genocide in eastern Russia (Siberia), the number of victims may be as high as 500,000 Poles. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2016.03.14]
)

Great Purge 1937: In the summer of 1937 Polish Catholic priests held in Solovetsky Islands, Anzer Island and BelBaltLag were locked in prison cells (some in Sankt Petersburg). Next in a few kangaroo, murderous Russian trials (on 09.10.1937, 25.11.1937, among others) run by so‑called «NKVD Troika» all were sentenced to death. They were subsequently executed by a single shot to the back of the head. The murders took place either in Sankt Petersburg prison or directly in places of mass murder, e.g. Sandarmokh or Levashov Wilderness, where their bodies were dumped into the ditches. Other priests were arrested in the places they still ministered in and next murdered in local NKVD headquarters (e.g. in Minsk in Belarus), after equally genocidal trials run by aforementioned «NKVD Troika» kangaroo courts.

BelbaltLag: White Sea‑Baltic Sea camp — Russian concentration and forced slave labor camp, under the management of the Gulag camp network (i.e. the genocidal OGPU, and then the NKVD), with the HQ in Medvedevegorsk (then in the Karelo–Finnish rep.) on the White Sea. Established on 16.11.1931, on the basis of the former SLON camp (on the Solovetsky islands). Prisoners slaved on canal construction between the White Sea and the Baltic Sea (the canal itself was opened on.06.1933). Later, prisoners worked in logging forests, in sawmills, in the construction of wood products and paper factories, hydroelectric plants, nickel factories and alcohol distilleries, construction of ports, and laying railway lines. C. 58,965 to 107,900 (1932) prisoners were held in the camp at one time —–e.g. in 1938, there were 3,946 women among them. According to official data, 12,300 perished during the construction of the canal itself — according to unofficial data, from 50,000 to 300,000. One of head managers of the construction of the canal was a Jew, Naftali Frenkel, who went down in history as the author of the principle„We have to squeeze everything out of the prisoner in the first three months — then nothing is there for us”. He was to be the creator, according to Solzhenitsyn, of the so–called „Boiler system”, i.e. the dependence of food rations on working out a certain percentage of the norm. The term ZEK — i.e. prisoner – canal soldier (Rus. заключенный–каналоармец) — was coined in the camp, which was adopted to mean a prisoner in Russian slave labor camps. The camp operated until 18.09.1941, and the entire project — in economic terms — turned out to be a total failure. (more on: ru.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2022.09.02]
, en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2014.05.09]
)

SLON-Lag (Solovetsky Islands): Solovetsky Special Purpose Camp SLON (ros. Солове́цкий ла́герь осо́бого назначе́ния) — Russian concentration camp and forced labour camp, on Solovetsky Islands, in operation from 1923 and initially founded on the site of famous former Orthodox monastery. Functioned till 1939 (in 1936‑1939 as a prison). In 1920 the largest concentration camp in Russia. Place of slave labour and murder of hundreds of mainly Christian, including Catholic, priests, especially in 1920s and 1930s. The concept of future Russian slave labour concentration camps system Gulag its beginnings prob. can trace to camps of Solovetsky Islands — from there spread to the camps along Belamor canal (Baltic Sea — White Sea), and from there to all regions of Russian state. From the network of camps on Solovetsky Islands — also called Solovetsky Archipelago — Alexander Solzhenitsyn prob. formed his famous term of „Gulag Archipelago”. It is estimated that tens to hundreds of thousands prisoners were held in Solovetsky Islands camps. One source states 83,000 prisoners, of whom c. 43,000 were murdered, including c. 9.500 prisoners in 1937‑1938 who were brought out of the camp and murdered in a number of execution sites, including Sandarmokh, Krasnyi Bor and Lodeynoye Polye. Among them were many Catholic priests. After the National Socialist Party came to power in Germany in 1933, a German delegation visited the SLON camp, to „inspect” Russian solutions and adopt them later in German concentration camps. (more on: pl.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2014.05.09]
)

Gulag: The acronym Gulag comes from the Rus. Главное управление исправительно–трудовых лагерей и колоний (Eng. Main Board of Correctional Labor Camps). The network of Russian concentration camps for slave labor was formally established by the decision of the highest Russian authorities on 27.06.1929. Control was taken over by the OGPU, the predecessor of the genocidal NKVD (from 1934) and the MGB (from 1946). Individual gulags (camps) were often established in remote, sparsely populated areas, where industrial or transport facilities important for the Russian state were built. They were modeled on the first „great construction of communism”, the White Sea–Baltic Canal (1931‑1932), and Naftali Frenkel, of Jewish origin, is considered the creator of the system of using forced slave labor within the Gulag. Up to 12 mln prisoners were held there at one time, i.e. c. 5% of Russia's population. In his book „The Gulag Archipelago”, Alexander Solzhenitsyn estimated that c. 60 mln people were killed in the Gulag until 1956. Formally dissolved on 20.01.1960. (more on: pl.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2014.05.09]
, en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2014.05.09]
)

sources

personal:
sand.mapofmemory.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2019.02.02]
, sand.mapofmemory.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2019.02.02]

bibliographical:
Fate of the Catholic clergy in USSR 1917‑39. Martyrology”, Roman Dzwonkowski, SAC, ed. Science Society KUL, 2003, Lublin,
original images:
ipn.gov.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2019.02.02]

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