• OUR LADY of CZĘSTOCHOWA: st Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionOUR LADY of CZĘSTOCHOWA
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
link to OUR LADY of PERPETUAL HELP in SŁOMCZYN infoSITE LOGO

Roman Catholic
St Sigismund parish
05-507 Słomczyn
85 Wiślana Str.
Konstancin deanery
Warsaw archdiocese, Poland

  • St SIGISMUND: St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
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WHITE BOOK
Martyrology of the clergy — Poland

XX century (1914 – 1989)

personal data

review in:

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  • STEINMETZ Paweł, source: studylibpl.com, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOSTEINMETZ Paweł
    source: studylibpl.com
    own collection
  • STEINMETZ Paweł - c. 1926, source: www.wbc.poznan.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOSTEINMETZ Paweł
    c. 1926
    source: www.wbc.poznan.pl
    own collection
  • STEINMETZ Paweł - 19.02.1939, Poznań, source: audiovis.nac.gov.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOSTEINMETZ Paweł
    19.02.1939, Poznań
    source: audiovis.nac.gov.pl
    own collection
  • STEINMETZ Paweł - 14.06.1936, Poznań, source: audiovis.nac.gov.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOSTEINMETZ Paweł
    14.06.1936, Poznań
    source: audiovis.nac.gov.pl
    own collection
  • STEINMETZ Paweł - 11.1939, Poznań, source: audiovis.nac.gov.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOSTEINMETZ Paweł
    11.1939, Poznań
    source: audiovis.nac.gov.pl
    own collection
  • STEINMETZ Paweł, source: www.lutniaosieczna.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOSTEINMETZ Paweł
    source: www.lutniaosieczna.pl
    own collection
  • STEINMETZ Paweł - 1918, Osieczna, source: lutniaosieczna.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOSTEINMETZ Paweł
    1918, Osieczna
    source: lutniaosieczna.pl
    own collection

surname

STEINMETZ

forename(s)

Paweł

  • STEINMETZ Paweł - Commemorative plaque, Poznań?, source: www.wbc.poznan.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOSTEINMETZ Paweł
    Commemorative plaque, Poznań?
    source: www.wbc.poznan.pl
    own collection
  • STEINMETZ Paweł - Commemorative plaque, Leszno, source: www.wtg-gniazdo.org, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOSTEINMETZ Paweł
    Commemorative plaque, Leszno
    source: www.wtg-gniazdo.org
    own collection
  • STEINMETZ Paweł - Commemorative plaque, parish church, Osieczna, source: www.wtg-gniazdo.org, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOSTEINMETZ Paweł
    Commemorative plaque, parish church, Osieczna
    source: www.wtg-gniazdo.org
    own collection
  • STEINMETZ Paweł - Commemorative plaque, Underground Resistance State monument, Poznań, source: own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOSTEINMETZ Paweł
    Commemorative plaque, Underground Resistance State monument, Poznań
    source: own collection
  • STEINMETZ Paweł - Underground Resistance State monument, Poznań, source: own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOSTEINMETZ Paweł
    Underground Resistance State monument, Poznań
    source: own collection
  • STEINMETZ Paweł - Underground Resistance State monument, Poznań, source: own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOSTEINMETZ Paweł
    Underground Resistance State monument, Poznań
    source: own collection
  • STEINMETZ Paweł - Altar, Martyrs' Chapel, St Peter and St Paul cathedral, Poznań, source: own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOSTEINMETZ Paweł
    Altar, Martyrs' Chapel, St Peter and St Paul cathedral, Poznań
    source: own collection
  • STEINMETZ Paweł - Commemorative plague, altar, Martyrs' Chapel, St Peter and St Paul cathedral, Poznań, source: own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOSTEINMETZ Paweł
    Commemorative plague, altar, Martyrs' Chapel, St Peter and St Paul cathedral, Poznań
    source: own collection

function

diocesan priest

creed

Latin (Roman Catholic) Churchmore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2014.09.21]

diocese / province

Gniezno and Poznań archdiocese (aeque principaliter)more on
www.archpoznan.pl
[access: 2012.11.23]

Military Ordinariate of Polandmore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2014.12.20]

honorary titles

prelatemore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2014.11.14]

Officer's Cross „Polonia Restituta”more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2019.04.16]

„Medal of Independence”more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2019.02.02]

„Cross of Valour”more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2019.04.16]

Gold „Cross of Merit”more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2019.04.16]

Commemorative Medal for War of 1918-21more on
pl.wikipedia.org
[access: 2019.10.13]

provostmore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2015.03.01]
(Poznań collegiate)

date and place of death

01.1940

KL Posenconcentration camp
today: Poznań, Poznań city pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland

more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2022.01.09]

alt. dates and places of death

21-23.01.1940

forest n. Zbąszyńtoday: Zbąszyń gm., Nowy Tomyśl pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.06.20]

details of death

During his secondary schooling till 1898 in gymnasiums in Poznań and Wschowa member of Polish secret self–educational Thomas Zan Society.

After announcement of rebirth of Poland on 11.11.1918 organiser and chairman of Polish Workers and Soldiers Council (14.11.1918), and later Peoples' Council (30.11.1918) in Osieczna.

During Greater Poland Uprising of 1918‑9 founder of „Falcon” Gymnastic Society transformed into insurgents' „Leszno” armed unit.

To equip it took 5,000 marks loan from a local bank.

On 10.11.1919 in Osieczna set up a Red Cross Society that organized a filed hospital for insurgents.

Later on 11.01.1919 organized a successful defense of Osieczna against returning Germans.

On 25.03.1919 became chaplain of 6th Greater Poland Riflemen Regiment in 2nd Greater Poland Riflement Division.

After German and Russian invasion of Poland in 09.1939 and start of the II World War, after start of German occupation, arrested on 10.10.1939 by the Germans (according to other sources on 11/12.09.1939, right after the capture of the city by the Germans).

Jailed in Młyńska Str. Gestapo prison and next in Kazimierz Biskupi transit camp.

From there moved to Konin prison and treated as a hostage — designed to ensure obedience of all Catholic priests detained in Kazimierz Biskupi camp (according to other sources taken to Lądek–Zdrój in Sudety mountains).

On 10.12.1939 released and deported to General Governorate (according to other sources escaped on 04.12.1939 while being transported to General Governorate and moved towards Kielce).

Poznań German Gestapo started however to search for him for participation in Greater Poland uprising in 1918‑9 and soon, on 06.01.1940, in Poręba village n. Tarnów arrested again by the Germans.

Brought back to Poznań and held in KL Posen (Fort VII) concentration camp.

There tortured and prob. murdered, possibly torn and bitten by the dogs.

alt. details of death

According to some witnesses driven out of KL Posen (Fort VII) together with group of convicts bound together by a wire in Zbąszyń direction and there, in local forests, murdered.

It is worth noticing that in 01.1940 German murdered c. 2,000 KL Posen prisoners on the shores of Rusałka lake in Poznań (in Golęcin forests).

cause of death

murder

perpetrators

Germans

date and place of birth

13.01.1876

Kórniktoday: Kórnik gm., Poznań pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.15]

presbyter (holy orders)/
ordination

15.12.1901 (Gnieznotoday: Gniezno urban gm., Gniezno pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.12.18]
)

positions held

1935 – 1939

parish priest {parish: Poznańtoday: Poznań city pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
, St Mary Magdalene; church: St Stanislaus the Bishop and Martyr}

membership {Poznańtoday: Poznań city pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
, Lat. „Consilium a Vigilantiae” (Eng. „Committee on Morals”), Metropolitan Curia}

legate {Poznańtoday: Poznań city pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
, Board of the Archbishop's Theological Seminary, Metropolitan Curia}

general treasurer {Poznańtoday: Poznań city pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
, Priestly Allowance Pension Fund Institute; archdioc: Poznań}

Archbishop's delegate {Poznańtoday: Poznań city pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
, Temperance Fraternities Union; archdioc: Poznań}

president {Poznańtoday: Poznań city pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
, „Caritas” Archdiocesan Institute}

president {Poznańtoday: Poznań city pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
, St Peter the Apostle Papal Society; archdioc: Poznań}

1938 – 1939

president {Main Board, Association of Greater Poland Insurgents}

c. 1920 – 1935

dean {dean.: Lesznotoday: Leszno city pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
}

1906 – 1935

parish priest {parish: Osiecznatoday: Osieczna gm., Leszno pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
, Holy Trinity; dean.: Śmigiel / Lesznodeanery names/seats
today: Greater Poland voiv., Poland
}

1934

administrator {parish: Święciechowatoday: Święciechowa gm., Leszno pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
, St James the Great the Apostle; dean.: Lesznotoday: Leszno city pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
}

1923 – 1924

administrator {parish: Zbarzewotoday: Włoszakowice gm., Leszno pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
, Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary; dean.: Lesznotoday: Leszno city pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
}

from 1919

administrator {parish: Kąkolewotoday: Osieczna gm., Leszno pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
, All the Saints; dean.: Lesznotoday: Leszno city pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
}

c. 1915

chaplain {Silesia; Polish prisoners of war}

from 1911

director {Osiecznatoday: Osieczna gm., Leszno pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
, House of Retired Priests}

c. 1908

missionary {Polish emigration centers; Germany}

1906

administrator {parish: Osiecznatoday: Osieczna gm., Leszno pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
, Holy Trinity; dean.: Śmigieltoday: Śmigiel gm., Kościan pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
}

1902 – 1906

vicar {parish: Lesznotoday: Leszno city pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
, St Nicholas the Bishop and Confessor; dean.: Lesznotoday: Leszno city pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
}

till 1906

prefect {Lesznotoday: Leszno city pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
, Amos Comenius's gymnasium}

till 1901

student {Gnieznotoday: Gniezno urban gm., Gniezno pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.12.18]
, philosophy and theology, Archbishop's Practical Theological Seminary (Lat. Seminarium Clericorum Practicum)}

from 1898

student {Poznańtoday: Poznań city pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
, philosophy and theology, Theological Seminary (Collegium Leoninum)}

1908 – 1939

membership {Poznańtoday: Poznań city pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
, Friends of Sciences Society}

others related in death

CEGIELClick to display biography Tadeusz, FLACHClick to display biography Julian, GRAMLEWICZClick to display biography Edward, HARASYMOWICZClick to display biography Wincenty, JANICKIClick to display biography Stanisław, JANKOWSKIClick to display biography Alphonse, KUBIKClick to display biography Alexander, ŁUKOWSKIClick to display biography Stefan, MAŁECKIClick to display biography Stanisław, MANITIUSClick to display biography Gustaw, MIROCHNAClick to display biography Stefan Marian (Fr Julian), MZYKClick to display biography Ludwik, NIEDBAŁClick to display biography Anthony Adam, NOWAKClick to display biography Franciszek, PIOTROWSKIClick to display biography Ignacy, POPRAWSKIClick to display biography Marian, SĘKIEWICZClick to display biography Maurycy Wacław, SZREYBROWSKIClick to display biography Kazimierz, TYMAClick to display biography Józef, WIŚNIEWSKAClick to display biography Maria, WOŹNIAKClick to display biography Albin, ADAMSKIClick to display biography Ignacy, BAJEROWICZClick to display biography Wojciech Stanisław, BINEKClick to display biography Sylwester, DĄBROWSKIClick to display biography Stefan, DUDZIŃSKIClick to display biography Stanisław, GIEBUROWSKIClick to display biography Wacław Kazimierz, GRASZYŃSKIClick to display biography Alphonse, HAŁASClick to display biography Anthony, HEYDUCKIClick to display biography Czesław, KANIEWSKIClick to display biography Zbigniew, KAŹMIERSKIClick to display biography Boleslaus, KRUSZKAClick to display biography Stefan, MICHALSKIClick to display biography Stanisław, NIKLEWICZClick to display biography Czesław Stanisław, PACEWICZClick to display biography Wacław, PANEWICZClick to display biography Roman, PANKOWSKIClick to display biography Piotr Romuald Kazimierz, ROSENBERGClick to display biography Ludwik, SOŁTYSIŃSKIClick to display biography Romuald, ŚPIKOWSKIClick to display biography Marian, TACZAKClick to display biography Teodor, THEINERTClick to display biography Roman Zygmunt, WIERZCHACZEWSKIClick to display biography Maksymilian, WOLSKIClick to display biography Franciszek, ZALEWSKIClick to display biography Edward, ZWOLSKIClick to display biography Stefan

murder sites
camps (+ prisoner no)

KL Posen: German Posen — Fort VII — camp founded in c. 10.10.1939 in Poznań till mid of 11.1939 operated formally as KL Posen concentration camp (Germ. Konzentrationslager), and this term is used throughout the White Book, also later periods. It was first such a concentration camp set up by the Germans on Polish territory — in case of Greater Poland (Wielkopolska) directly incorporated into German Reich. In 10.1939 in KL Posen for the first time Germans used gas to murder civilian population, in particular patients of local psychiatric hospitals. From 11.1939 the camp operated as German political police Gestapo prison and transit camp (Germ. Übergangslager), prior to sending off to concentration camps, such as KL Dachau or KL Auschwitz. In 28.05.1941 the camp was rebranded as police jail and slave labour corrective camp (Germ. Arbeitserziehungslager). At its peak up to 7‑9 executions were carried in the camp per day, there were mass hangings of the prisoners and some of them were led out to be murdered elsewhere, outside of the camp. Altogether in KL Posen Germans exterminated approx. 20,000 inhabitants of Greater Poland (Wielkopolska) region, including many representatives of Polish intelligentsia, patients and staff of psychiatric hospitals and dozen or so Polish priests. Hundreds of priests were held there temporarily prior to transport to other concentration camps, mainly KL Dachau. From 03.1943 the camp had been transformed into an industrial complex (from 25.04.1944 — Telefunken factory manufacturing radios for submarines and aircrafts). (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2013.12.27]
)

General Governorate: A separate administrative territorial region set up by the Germans in 1939 after defeat of Poland, which included German‑occupied part of Polish territory that was not directly incorporate into German state. Created as the result of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, in a political sense, was to recreate the German idea of 1915 (after the defeat of the Russians in the Battle of Gorlice in 05.1915 during World War I) of establishing a Polish enclave within Germany (also called the General Governorate at that time). It was run by the Germans till 1945 and final Russian offensive, and was a part of so–called Big Germany — Grossdeutschland. Till 31.07.1940 formally known as Germ. Generalgouvernement für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete (Eng. General Governorate for occupied Polish territories) — later as simply niem. Generalgouvernement (Eng. General Governorate). From 07.1941 expanded to include district Galicia. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2013.12.04]
)

Deportations from niem. Reichsgau Wartheland: After defeating Poland in 1939 a new province was created in Germany, Germ. Reichsgau Wartheland (Eng. Warta German Region) and defined as „indigenous German”, although in 1939 Germans constituted less than 10% of the total population there. In the same 1939, the national–socialist leader of Germany, Adolf Hitler, announced the need to move Germans from the East to the Reich, mainly to the Germ. Reichsgau Wartheland. Another German leader, Robert Ley, stated, „In 50 years there will be a thriving German country where there will be neither a Pole nor a Jew! If someone asks me where they will be, I will answer: I don't know. In Palestine or in the Sahara desert, I don't care. But German people will live here!” Deportations began. By the end of 1939, c. 80 railway transports were sent to the General Governorate — a total of 87,883 people, mainly Poles and Jews. By 03.1941, over 280,000 people had been displaced. The deported had the right to take with them 12‑30 kg per person. They were given half an hour to pack. Over 60,000 Germans from Estonia, Latvia, Finland, later from other regions, were brought in to replace them. In 1941, c. 70,000 remaining Jewsa were displaced. (more on: pl.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2022.11.20]
)

Konin: The prison founded by the Russians during the partitions of Poland, right after the January Uprising of 1963‑4. The Russians detained and murdered there, among others the leader of the uprising in Konin, a Capuchin monk, Fr Maximilian Tarejwa. In 09.1939, after the start of World War II, the Germans took it over and used it as a prison and a detention center. Many Poles were held there — incl. hostages, who were later shot on 10.11.1939 in the Jewish cemetery. C. 180–200 people were held in 24 cells (12 in the basement and 12 on the ground floor) at any one time. Together, several thousand Poles passed through the prison. After the end of hostilities of the World War II and the beginning of the Russian occupation, in the years 1945—56 the Commie–Nazi authorities of the People's Republic of Poland prl murdered at least 10 people in prison. (more on: lajt.lm.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2010.08.11]
)

Kazimierz Biskupi: As part of Germ. „Intelligenzaktion”, a program aimed at extermination of Polish intelligentsia, the Germans set up an internment camp for altogether 42 Polish Catholic priests, mainly from Greater Poland (Wielkopolski) — activists of Catholic organizations, canons of the Poznań cathedral chapter, Dominican and Conventual Franciscan friars from Poznań — in the Missionary of the Holy Family (MSF) monastery, in Kazimierz Biskupi village, near Konin. The camp operated from 09.11.1939 to 26.08.1940. Some of the priests were released by Germans, the rest being transported to German concentration camps, where 8 of them perished. (more on: regionwielkopolska.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2013.10.05]
)

Poznań (Młyńska str.): Detention centre run by Germans. Death sentences were carried out there, by guillotine and hanging. (more on: pl.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2013.10.05]
)

Intelligenzaktion: (Eng. „Action Intelligentsia”) — extermination program of Polish elites, mainly intelligentsia, executed by the Germans right from the start of the occupation in 09.1939 till around 05.1940, mainly on the lands directly incorporated into Germany but also in the so‑called General Governorate where it was called AB‑aktion. During the first phase right after start of German occupation of Poland implemented as Germ. Unternehmen „Tannenberg” (Eng. „Tannenberg operation”) — plan based on proscription lists of Poles worked out by (Germ. Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen), regarded by Germans as specially dangerous to the German Reich. List contained names of c. 61,000 Poles. Altogether during this genocide Germans methodically murdered c. 50,000 teachers, priests, landowners, social and political activists and retired military. Further 50,000 were sent to concentration camps where most of them perished. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2014.10.04]
)

Ribbentrop-Molotov: Genocidal Russian–German alliance pact between Russian leader Joseph Stalin and German leader Adolf Hitler signed on 23.08.1939 in Moscow by respective foreign ministers, Mr. Vyacheslav Molotov for Russia and Joachim von Ribbentrop for Germany. The pact sanctioned and was the direct cause of joint Russian and German invasion of Poland and the outbreak of the II World War in 09.1939. In a political sense, the pact was an attempt to restore the status quo ante before 1914, with one exception, namely the „commercial” exchange of the so–called „Kingdom of Poland”, which in 1914 was part of the Russian Empire, fore Eastern Galicia (today's western Ukraine), in 1914 belonging to the Austro–Hungarian Empire. Galicia, including Lviv, was to be taken over by the Russians, the „Kingdom of Poland” — under the name of the General Governorate — Germany. The resultant „war was one of the greatest calamities and dramas of humanity in history, for two atheistic and anti–Christian ideologies — national and international socialism — rejected God and His fifth Decalogue commandment: Thou shall not kill!” (Abp Stanislaus Gądecki, 01.09.2019). The decisions taken — backed up by the betrayal of the formal allies of Poland, France and Germany, which on 12.09.1939, at a joint conference in Abbeville, decided not to provide aid to attacked Poland and not to take military action against Germany (a clear breach of treaty obligations with Poland) — were on 28.09.1939 slightly altered and made more precise when a treaty on „German–Russian boundaries and friendship” was agreed by the same murderous signatories. One of its findings was establishment of spheres of influence in Central and Eastern Europe and in consequence IV partition of Poland. In one of its secret annexes agreed, that: „the Signatories will not tolerate on its respective territories any Polish propaganda that affects the territory of the other Side. On their respective territories they will suppress all such propaganda and inform each other of the measures taken to accomplish it”. The agreements resulted in a series of meeting between two genocidal organization representing both sides — German Gestapo and Russian NKVD when coordination of efforts to exterminate Polish intelligentsia and Polish leading classes (in Germany called Intelligenzaktion, in Russia took the form of Katyń massacres) where discussed. Resulted in deaths of hundreds of thousands of Polish intelligentsia, including thousands of priests presented here, and tens of millions of ordinary people,. The results of this Russian–German pact lasted till 1989 and are still in evidence even today. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2015.09.30]
)

Greater Poland Uprising: Military insurrection of Poles living in Posen Provinz (Eng. Poznań province) launched against German Reich in 1918‑9 aiming to incorporate lands captured by Prussia during partitions of Poland in XVIII century into Poland, reborn in 1918. Started on 27.12.1918 in Poznań and finished with total Polish victory on 16.02.1919 by a ceasefire in Trier. Many Polish priests took part in the Uprising, both as chaplains of the insurgents units and members and leaders of the Polish agencies and councils set up in the areas covered by the Uprising. In 1939 after German invasion of Poland and start of the II World war those priests were particularly persecuted by the Germans and majority of them were murdered. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2016.08.14]
)

Thomas Zan Societies: Secret societies of Polish youth, aiming at self–education, patriotic in form and content, functioning 1830‑1920, in mutiny against enforced Germanisation and censure of Polish culture, mainly in secondary schools — gymnasia — mainly in Greater Poland (Wielkopolska) and later in Silesia. The first groups were formed in 1817. In 1897 a congress in Bydgoszcz was held when rules of clandestine activities were formulated. At other congress in Bydgoszcz in Poznań a „Red Rose” society was formed, heading all others groups in various gymnasiums and coordinating their activities. In 1900 „Red Rose” consolidated Philomaths organizations from Pomerania as well. After Toruń trial of Pomeranian Philomaths in Toruń Germans arrested 24 members of Thomas Zan Society from Gniezno. 21 of them were sentenced up to 6 weeks in prison and reprimands. All were relegated from schools without the right to continue education in secondary and higher schools in Prussia. Despite repression the Societies existed till 1918 and rebirth of Poland. (more on: pl.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2021.12.19]
)

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[access: 2012.11.23]
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[access: 2012.11.23]
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[access: 2020.04.25]
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[access: 2012.11.23]

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