• OUR LADY of CZĘSTOCHOWA: st Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionOUR LADY of CZĘSTOCHOWA
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
link to OUR LADY of PERPETUAL HELP in SŁOMCZYN infoSITE LOGO

Roman Catholic
St Sigismund parish
05-507 Słomczyn
85 Wiślana Str.
Konstancin deanery
Warsaw archdiocese, Poland

  • St SIGISMUND: St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
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Martyrology of the clergy — Poland

XX century (1914 – 1989)

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  • TACZAK Theodore - 04.03.1939, Żydowo, source: www.facebook.com, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOTACZAK Theodore
    04.03.1939, Żydowo
    source: www.facebook.com
    own collection
  • TACZAK Theodore - 29.11.1938, Poznań, source: audiovis.nac.gov.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOTACZAK Theodore
    29.11.1938, Poznań
    source: audiovis.nac.gov.pl
    own collection
  • TACZAK Theodore - 03.1937, Poznań, source: audiovis.nac.gov.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOTACZAK Theodore
    03.1937, Poznań
    source: audiovis.nac.gov.pl
    own collection
  • TACZAK Theodore - 13.02.1916, cathedral, Gniezno, source: www.wbc.poznan.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOTACZAK Theodore
    13.02.1916, cathedral, Gniezno
    source: www.wbc.poznan.pl
    own collection
  • TACZAK Theodore - 06.1931, Poznań, source: audiovis.nac.gov.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOTACZAK Theodore
    06.1931, Poznań
    source: audiovis.nac.gov.pl
    own collection
  • TACZAK Theodore, source: www.facebook.com, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOTACZAK Theodore
    source: www.facebook.com
    own collection
  • TACZAK Theodore - c. 1926, source: archiwum.allegro.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOTACZAK Theodore
    c. 1926
    source: archiwum.allegro.pl
    own collection

surname

TACZAK

forename(s)

Theodore (pl. Teodor)

  • TACZAK Theodore - Commemorative plaque, cemetery by the parish-fara, Śrem, source: www.sremfara.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOTACZAK Theodore
    Commemorative plaque, cemetery by the parish-fara, Śrem
    source: www.sremfara.pl
    own collection

function

diocesan priest

creed

Latin (Roman Catholic) Church RCmore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2014.09.21]

diocese / province

Gniezno and Poznań archdiocese (aeque principaliter)more on
www.archpoznan.pl
[access: 2012.11.23]

Military Ordinariate of Polandmore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2014.12.20]

academic distinctions

Doctor of Sacred Theology

honorary titles

Papal chamberlainmore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2014.11.22]

Minor Canonmore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2014.11.14]
(St George’s collegiate in Gniezno)

date and place
of death

22.06.1941

Warsawtoday: Warsaw city pov., Masovia voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.10.09]

details of death

During secondary education at a gymnasium in Ostrów Wielkopolski member of Polish secret self–educational Thomas Zan Society.

Active participant and chaplain of the Greater Poland (Wielkopolska) Uprising of 1918‐1919 (his brother was Uprising's leader).

After German and Russian invasion of Poland in 09.1939 and start of the World War II, after start of German occupation, for the first time arrested by the Germans on 11.09.1939 and held as a hostage (in Gold Hall and Library Hall of the Old Town Hall, and next in Collegium Marianum building on Różana Str. in Poznań).

Released on 30.10.1939.

Arrested again on 09.11.1939, after confiscation by the Germans of St Martin church in Poznań and turning it into a stolen sacred artwork warehouse.

Held in a transit camp in Poznań for people being forcibly deported from the new German „Warthegau” province (or in KL Posen — Fort VII — concentration camp) and next in Kazimierz Biskupi transit camp.

From there in 05.1940 deported to German‐run General Governorate where perished (on the day of German attack of their erstwhile ally, Russians).

cause of death

exile

perpetrators

Germans

date and place
of birth

16.10.1878

Mieszkówtoday: Jarocin gm., Jarocin pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.15]

presbyter (holy orders)
ordination

19.03.1901 (Gnieznotoday: Gniezno urban gm., Gniezno pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.12.18]
)

positions held

1930 – 1939

parish priest — Poznańtoday: Poznań city pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
⋄ St Martin, the Bishop and Confessor RC parish ⋄ Poznańtoday: Poznań city pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
RC deanery — also: member of the Council of Parish Priests–Consultors of the Metropolitan Curia (c. 1931‐1939), pro–synodal examiner (c. 1931‐1939), archbishop's deputy in disciplinary matters of the Archbishop's Theological Seminary (c. 1931‐1939), archbishop's delegate to the Higher Council of the Conference of St Vincent de Paul (c. 1932‐1939), member of the Supreme National Council of the Pontifical Society for the Propagation of the Faith and the Supreme National Council of the Pontifical Society of St Peter the Apostle (c. 1932‐1939), county inspector of religion classes in elementary schools (1930‐1939), academic chaplain of youth at the University of Poznań (c. 1932‐1939), president of the Board of the Archbishop Boarding Schools (1930‐1931)

1930 – 1939

priest — Poznańtoday: Poznań city pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
— academic

1925 – 1930

parish priest — Śremtoday: Śrem gm., Śrem pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
⋄ Blessed Virgin Mary of the Assumption RC parish ⋄ Śremtoday: Śrem gm., Śrem pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
RC deanery — also: headmaster of a private girls' gymnasium (till 1929), county inspector of religion classes in elementary schools (till 1930), president of the Board of the Archbishop Boarding Schools (till 1930), auxiliary chaplain of the Polish Armed Forces (till 1930)

1919 – 1925

dean — Metztoday: Metz arr., Mozela dep., Grand Est reg., France
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2022.07.18]
⋄ Polish Mission — minister to Polish emigrants and migrants

1916 – 1919

president — Archbishop's Metropolitan Court ⋄ Gniezno RC archdiocese

1915 – 1916

pro–synodal judge — Archbishop's Metropolitan Court ⋄ Gniezno RC archdiocese

1915

vicar general — Gniezno RC archdiocese — Lat. „in spiritualibus

1909 – 1919

canon of the chapter — Gnieznotoday: Gniezno urban gm., Gniezno pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.12.18]
⋄ Collegiate Chapter ⋄ St George the Martyr RC collegiate church

1908 – 1919

professor — Gnieznotoday: Gniezno urban gm., Gniezno pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.12.18]
⋄ Archbishop's Theological Seminary — lecturer in canon law, moral theology and social issues; also: librarian of the seminary and chapter libraries, fiscal procurator / treasurer and defender of the marriage bond at the Archbishop's Metropolitan Court (from 1909), editor of „Apologetics' News” published in Poznań (1911‐1913)

1904 – 1908

vicar–mansionaire — Poznańtoday: Poznań city pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
⋄ St Adalbert the Bishop and Martyr RC parish ⋄ Poznańtoday: Poznań city pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
RC deanery

1903

vicar — Sławoszewtoday: Kotlin gm., Jarocin pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
⋄ St Sophie RC parish ⋄ Jarocintoday: Jarocin gm., Jarocin pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
RC deanery

1903

vicar — Ostrów Wielkopolskitoday: Ostrów Wielkopolski urban gm., Ostrów Wielkopolski pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.06.07]
⋄ St Stanislav the Bishop and Martyr RC parish ⋄ Ostrów Wielkopolskitoday: Ostrów Wielkopolski urban gm., Ostrów Wielkopolski pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.06.07]
RC deanery

1901 – 1903

PhD student — Münstertoday: Münster urban dist., Münster reg., North Rhine‐Westphalia state, Germany
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
⋄ theology, Wilhelm University of Westphalia [i.e. Wilhelm University of Westphalia (from 1907) / Royal University of Theology and Philosophy (1902–1907) / Royal Theological and Philosophical Academy] (1843–1902) — PhD thesis Germ. „Dämonische Bessenheit, ein Kapitel aus der kath. Lehre von der Herrsch aft des Fürsten der Sünde u. des Todes” (Eng. „Demonic possession, a chapter from the Catholic doctrine of the dominion of the prince of sin and death”), public defense in 1903

1900 – 1901

student — Gnieznotoday: Gniezno urban gm., Gniezno pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.12.18]
⋄ philosophy and theology, Archbishop's Practical Theological Seminary (Lat. Seminarium Clericorum Practicum)

1897 – 1900

student — Poznańtoday: Poznań city pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
⋄ philosophy and theology, Archbishop's Theological Seminary (Collegium Leoninum)

author of: Lat. „Ius matrimoniale ecclesiasticum alumnorum seminarii archiepiscopalis gnesnensis usui accommodavit…” (Eng. „Ecclesiastical matrimonial law for the use of alumni of the seminary in Gniezno…”), 1911, Gniezno, on manuscript rights; Lat. „Tractatus de Sacramento Poenitentiae alumnorum seminarii archiepiscopalis gnesnensis usui accommodavit…” (Eng. „Treatise on the Sacrament of Penance for the use of alumni of the seminary in Gniezno…”), Gniezno, on manuscript rights; Lat. „Tractatus de censuris” (Eng. „Treatise on censorship”), Gniezno, on manuscript rights; „Church property rights for the use of alumni of the seminary in Gniezno”, 1913/4, Gniezno, on manuscript rights

others related
in death

ADAMSKIClick to display biography Ignatius, BINEKClick to display biography Silvester, DĄBROWSKIClick to display biography Steven, DUDZIŃSKIClick to display biography Stanislav, GIEBUROWSKIClick to display biography Vaclav Casimir, GRASZYŃSKIClick to display biography Alphonse, HAŁASClick to display biography Anthony, HEYDUCKIClick to display biography Ceslav, KAŹMIERSKIClick to display biography Boleslav, KRUSZKAClick to display biography Steven, MICHALSKIClick to display biography Stanislav, PANEWICZClick to display biography Roman, PANKOWSKIClick to display biography Peter Romualdo Casimir, ROSENBERGClick to display biography Louis, SOŁTYSIŃSKIClick to display biography Romualdo, ŚPIKOWSKIClick to display biography Marian, THEINERTClick to display biography Roman Sigismund, WIERZCHACZEWSKIClick to display biography Maximilian, WOLSKIClick to display biography Francis, ZWOLSKIClick to display biography Steven, BAJEROWICZClick to display biography Adalbert Stanislav, KANIEWSKIClick to display biography Zbigniew, NIKLEWICZClick to display biography Ceslav Stanislav, PACEWICZClick to display biography Vaclav, STEINMETZClick to display biography Paul, ZALEWSKIClick to display biography Edward

murder sites
camp 
(+ prisoner no)

General Governorate: A separate administrative territorial region set up by the Germans in 1939 after defeat of Poland, which included German‐occupied part of Polish territory that was not directly incorporate into German state. Created as the result of the Ribbentrop‐Molotov Pact, in a political sense, was to recreate the German idea of 1915 (after the defeat of the Russians in the Battle of Gorlice in 05.1915 during World War I) of establishing a Polish enclave within Germany (also called the General Governorate at that time). It was run by the Germans till 1945 and final Russian offensive, and was a part of so‐called Big Germany — Grossdeutschland. Till 31.07.1940 formally known as Germ. Generalgouvernement für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete (Eng. General Governorate for occupied Polish territories) — later as simply Germ. Generalgouvernement (Eng. General Governorate). From 07.1941 expanded to include district Galicia. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2013.12.04]
)

Deportations from niem. Reichsgau Wartheland: After defeating Poland in 1939 a new province was created in Germany, Germ. Reichsgau Wartheland (Eng. Warta German Region) and defined as „indigenous German”, although in 1939 Germans constituted less than 10% of the total population there. In the same 1939, the national‐socialist leader of Germany, Adolf Hitler, announced the need to move Germans from the East to the Reich, mainly to the Germ. Reichsgau Wartheland. Another German leader, Robert Ley, stated, „In 50 years there will be a thriving German country where there will be neither a Pole nor a Jew! If someone asks me where they will be, I will answer: I don't know. In Palestine or in the Sahara desert, I don't care. But German people will live here!” Deportations began. By the end of 1939, c. 80 railway transports were sent to the General Governorate — a total of 87,883 people, mainly Poles and Jews. By 03.1941, over 280,000 people had been displaced. The deported had the right to take with them 12‐30 kg per person. They were given half an hour to pack. Over 60,000 Germans from Estonia, Latvia, Finland, later from other regions, were brought in to replace them. In 1941, c. 70,000 remaining Jewsa were displaced. (more on: pl.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2022.11.20]
)

Kazimierz Biskupi: As part of Germ. «Intelligenzaktion», a program aimed at extermination of Polish intelligentsia, the Germans set up an internment camp for altogether 42 Polish Catholic priests, mainly from Greater Poland (Wielkopolski) — activists of Catholic organizations, canons of the Poznań cathedral chapter, Dominican and Conventual Franciscan friars from Poznań — in the Missionary of the Holy Family (MSF) monastery, in Kazimierz Biskupi village, near Konin. The camp operated from 09.11.1939 to 26.08.1940. Some of the priests were released by Germans, the rest being transported to German concentration camps, where 8 of them perished. (more on: regionwielkopolska.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2013.10.05]
)

KL Posen: German Posen — Fort VII — camp founded in c. 10.10.1939 in Poznań till mid of 11.1939 operated formally as Germ. Konzentrationslager (Eng. concentration camp) KL Posen, and this term is used throughout the White Book, also later periods. It was first such a concentration camp set up by the Germans on Polish territory — in case of Greater Poland (Wielkopolska) directly incorporated into German Reich. In 10.1939 in KL Posen for the first time Germans used gas to murder civilian population, in particular patients of local psychiatric hospitals. From 11.1939 the camp operated as German political police Gestapo prison and transit camp (Germ. Übergangslager), prior to sending off to concentration camps, such as KL Dachau or KL Auschwitz. In 28.05.1941 the camp was rebranded as police jail and slave labour corrective camp (Germ. Arbeitserziehungslager). At its peak up to 7‐9 executions were carried in the camp per day, there were mass hangings of the prisoners and some of them were led out to be murdered elsewhere, outside of the camp. Altogether in KL Posen Germans exterminated approx. 20,000 inhabitants of Greater Poland (Wielkopolska) region, including many representatives of Polish intelligentsia, patients and staff of psychiatric hospitals and dozen or so Polish priests. Hundreds of priests were held there temporarily prior to transport to other concentration camps, mainly KL Dachau. From 03.1943 the camp had been transformed into an industrial complex (from 25.04.1944 — Telefunken factory manufacturing radios for submarines and aircrafts). (more on: www.wmn.poznan.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2019.02.02]
, en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2013.12.27]
)

«Intelligenzaktion»: (Eng. „Action Intelligentsia”) — extermination program of Polish elites, mainly intelligentsia, executed by the Germans right from the start of the occupation in 09.1939 till around 05.1940, mainly on the lands directly incorporated into Germany but also in the so‐called General Governorate where it was called «AB‐aktion». During the first phase right after start of German occupation of Poland implemented as Germ. Unternehmen „Tannenberg” (Eng. „Tannenberg operation”) — plan based on proscription lists of Poles worked out by (Germ. Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen), regarded by Germans as specially dangerous to the German Reich. List contained names of c. 61,000 Poles. Altogether during this genocide Germans methodically murdered c. 50,000 teachers, priests, landowners, social and political activists and retired military. Further 50,000 were sent to concentration camps where most of them perished. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2014.10.04]
)

Collective responsibility („Hostages”): A criminal practice implemented by the Germans in the occupied territories of Poland, applied from the very first day of World War II. At its core was an appointment and public announcement of a list of names of selected people whose lives depended on absolute compliance with German orders. Any violation of these ordinances, by any person, regardless of the circumstances, resulted in the murder of the designated „hostages”. In the first days of the war and occupation, it was used i.a. by the German Wehrmacht army to prevent acts of continuation of the defense by the Poles. Later, especially in the German‐run General Governorate, it was part of the official policy of the occupation authorities — collective responsibility for any acts of resistance to the occupier's practices. For the life of one German, even if death was due to customary reasons, the Germans carried out executions from a dozen to even a hundred Poles previously designated as „hostages”.

Ribbentrop‐Molotov: Genocidal Russian‐German alliance pact between Russian leader Joseph Stalin and German leader Adolf Hitler signed on 23.08.1939 in Moscow by respective foreign ministers, Mr. Vyacheslav Molotov for Russia and Joachim von Ribbentrop for Germany. The pact sanctioned and was the direct cause of joint Russian and German invasion of Poland and the outbreak of the World War II in 09.1939. In a political sense, the pact was an attempt to restore the status quo ante before 1914, with one exception, namely the „commercial” exchange of the so‐called „Kingdom of Poland”, which in 1914 was part of the Russian Empire, fore Eastern Galicia (today's western Ukraine), in 1914 belonging to the Austro‐Hungarian Empire. Galicia, including Lviv, was to be taken over by the Russians, the „Kingdom of Poland” — under the name of the General Governorate — Germany. The resultant „war was one of the greatest calamities and dramas of humanity in history, for two atheistic and anti‐Christian ideologies — national and international socialism — rejected God and His fifth Decalogue commandment: Thou shall not kill!” (Abp Stanislav Gądecki, 01.09.2019). The decisions taken — backed up by the betrayal of the formal allies of Poland, France and Germany, which on 12.09.1939, at a joint conference in Abbeville, decided not to provide aid to attacked Poland and not to take military action against Germany (a clear breach of treaty obligations with Poland) — were on 28.09.1939 slightly altered and made more precise when a treaty on „German‐Russian boundaries and friendship” was agreed by the same murderous signatories. One of its findings was establishment of spheres of influence in Central and Eastern Europe and in consequence IV partition of Poland. In one of its secret annexes agreed, that: „the Signatories will not tolerate on its respective territories any Polish propaganda that affects the territory of the other Side. On their respective territories they will suppress all such propaganda and inform each other of the measures taken to accomplish it”. The agreements resulted in a series of meeting between two genocidal organization representing both sides — German Gestapo and Russian NKVD when coordination of efforts to exterminate Polish intelligentsia and Polish leading classes (in Germany called «Intelligenzaktion», in Russia took the form of Katyń massacres) where discussed. Resulted in deaths of hundreds of thousands of Polish intelligentsia, including thousands of priests presented here, and tens of millions of ordinary people,. The results of this Russian‐German pact lasted till 1989 and are still in evidence even today. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2015.09.30]
)

Pius XI's encyclicals: Facing the creation of two totalitarian systems in Europe, which seemed to compete with each other, though there were more similarities than contradictions between them, Pope Pius XI issued in 03.1937 (within 5 days) two encyclicals. In the „Mit brennender Sorge” (Eng. „With Burning Concern”) published on 14.03.1938, condemned the national socialism prevailing in Germany. The Pope wrote: „Whoever, following the old Germanic‐pre‐Christian beliefs, puts various impersonal fate in the place of a personal God, denies the wisdom of God and Providence […], whoever exalts earthly values: race or nation, or state, or state system, representatives of state power or other fundamental values of human society, […] and makes them the highest standard of all values, including religious ones, and idolizes them, this one […] is far from true faith in God and from a worldview corresponding to such faith”. On 19.03.1937, published „Divini Redemptoris” (Eng. „Divine Redeemer”), in which criticized Russian communism, dialectical materialism and the class struggle theory. The Pope wrote: „Communism deprives man of freedom, and therefore the spiritual basis of all life norms. It deprives the human person of all his dignity and any moral support with which he could resist the onslaught of blind passions […] This is the new gospel that Bolshevik and godless communism preaches as a message of salvation and redemption of humanity”… Pius XI demanded that the established human law be subjected to the natural law of God , recommended the implementation of the ideal of a Christian state and society, and called on Catholics to resist. Two years later, National Socialist Germany and Communist Russia came together and started World War II. (more on: www.vatican.vaClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2023.05.28]
, www.vatican.vaClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2023.05.28]
)

Greater Poland Uprising: Military insurrection of Poles of former German Germ. Posen Provinz (Eng. Poznań province) launched against German Reich in 1918‐1919 — after the abdication on 09.11.1918 of the German Emperor William II Hohenzollern; after the armistice between the Allies and Germany signed on 11.1.1918 in the HQ wagon in Compiègne, the headquarters of Marshal of France Ferdinand Foch — which de facto meant the end of World War I — against the German Weimar Republic, established on the ruins of the German Empire, aiming to incorporate lands captured by Prussia during partitions of Poland in XVIII century into Poland, reborn in 1918. Started on 27.12.1918 in Poznań and ended on 16.02.1919 with the armistice in Trier (which included provisions ordering the Germans to stop their actions against Poland), which meant a de facto Polish victory. Many Polish priests took part in the Uprising, both as chaplains of the insurgents units and members and leaders of the Polish agencies and councils set up in the areas covered by the Uprising. In 1939 after German invasion of Poland and start of the World War II those priests were particularly persecuted by the Germans and majority of them were murdered. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2016.08.14]
)

Thomas Zan Societies: Secret societies of Polish youth, aiming at self‐education, patriotic in form and content, functioning 1830‐1920, in mutiny against enforced Germanisation and censure of Polish culture, mainly in secondary schools — gymnasia — mainly in Greater Poland (Wielkopolska) and later in Silesia. The first groups were formed in 1817. In 1897 a congress in Bydgoszcz was held when rules of clandestine activities were formulated. At other congress in Bydgoszcz in Poznań a „Red Rose” society was formed, heading all others groups in various gymnasiums and coordinating their activities. In 1900 „Red Rose” consolidated Philomaths organizations from Pomerania as well. After Toruń trial of Pomeranian Philomaths in Toruń Germans arrested 24 members of Thomas Zan Society from Gniezno. 21 of them were sentenced up to 6 weeks in prison and reprimands. All were relegated from schools without the right to continue education in secondary and higher schools in Prussia. Despite repression the Societies existed till 1918 and rebirth of Poland. (more on: pl.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2021.12.19]
)

sources

personal:
www.wtg-gniazdo.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2013.08.10]
, www.archiwum.archidiecezja.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2013.08.10]
, pl.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2021.12.19]

bibliographical:
Pastors of the Polish Diaspora and Poles Abroad — Biographical Dictionary”, Fr Joseph Szymański, vol. II, Lublin 2011
original images:
www.facebook.comClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2024.04.12]
, audiovis.nac.gov.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2016.03.14]
, audiovis.nac.gov.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2016.08.14]
, www.wbc.poznan.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2016.08.14]
, audiovis.nac.gov.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2016.03.14]
, www.facebook.comClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2016.08.14]
, archiwum.allegro.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2021.05.06]
, www.sremfara.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2014.01.06]

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