• OUR LADY of CZĘSTOCHOWA: st Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionOUR LADY of CZĘSTOCHOWA
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
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Roman Catholic
St Sigismund parish
05-507 Słomczyn
85 Wiślana Str.
Konstancin deanery
Warsaw archdiocese, Poland

  • St SIGISMUND: St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
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Martyrology of the clergy — Poland

XX century (1914 – 1989)

personal data

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  • OKOŁO-KUŁAK Anthony, source: audiovis.nac.gov.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOOKOŁO-KUŁAK Anthony
    source: audiovis.nac.gov.pl
    own collection
  • OKOŁO-KUŁAK Anthony - 1918-25, source: www.ipsb.nina.gov.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOOKOŁO-KUŁAK Anthony
    1918-25
    source: www.ipsb.nina.gov.pl
    own collection

surname

OKOŁO-KUŁAK

forename(s)

Anthony (pl. Antoni)

function

diocesan priest

creed

Latin (Roman Catholic) Church RCmore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2014.09.21]

diocese / province

Minsk diocesemore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2013.05.19]

Mogilev archdiocesemore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2013.06.23]

academic distinctions

Doctor of Canon Law

honorary titles

pontifical prelatemore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2014.11.14]

Order of „Polonia Restitutamore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2019.04.16]

Cross of Independencemore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2019.02.02]

Prelate‐curator (Lat. praelati‐custos)more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2015.09.30]
(Mogilev cathedral)

date and place
of death

02.07.1940

KL Sachsenhausenconcentration camp
today: Sachsenhausen‐Oranienburg, Oberhavel dist., Brandenburg state, Germany

more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2018.11.18]

details of death

For „Catholics and Old–Believers”, an article published in „Belief and Live” monthy, deprived in 1911 of his parish in Sankt Petersburg and sentenced by the Russians to 6 months arrest in Aglona (in a Dominican monastery) in Latvia.

During World War I, after Russian defeat in 05.1915 by the combined forces of German and Austro–Hungarian armies in the Battle of Gorlice, which caused a mass escape of the Russian administration from the Russian–occupied territories of the First Polish Republic (known–as biezhenstvo), looked after Polish refugees in Russia (1915‐1918).

In 1918 in danger of imminent arrest and execution by the Russians — for collaboration with Polish military organizations — left Russia and went to reborn Poland.

After German and Russian invasion of Poland in 09.1939 and start of the World War II, after start of German occupation, arrested by the Germans for the first time on 03.10.1939 and held as a hostage, prob. as prevention before triumphal arrival of German socialist leader, Adolf Hitler, to captured Warsaw, together with c. 250 Catholic priests and clerics in Pawiak prison.

Released on c. 11‐15.10.1939.

Arrested again by the Germans on 30.03.1940.

Jailed in Pawiak prison in Warsaw.

On 02.05.1940 transported to KL Sachsenhausen concentration camp where perished.

cause of death

extermination: exhaustion and starvation

perpetrators

Germans

date and place
of birth

31.03.1883

Budogoshchtoday: Kirishi reg., Leningrad oblast, Russia
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2023.01.18]

presbyter (holy orders)
ordination

27.05.1906

positions held

till 1940

resident — Warsawtoday: Warsaw city pov., Masovia voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.10.09]

c. 1928 – 1932

prelate‐curator — Warsawtoday: Warsaw city pov., Masovia voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.10.09]
⋄ Cathedral Chapter ⋄ Mogilevtoday: Mogilev dist., Mogilev reg., Belarus
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2022.01.06]
, Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary and St Stanislav the Bishop and Martyr RC archcathedral church ⋄ Mogilev RC archdiocese

1927 – 1932

editor — magazine, „Kitež

1924 – 1932

member of managment board — Lublintoday: Lublin city pov., Lublin voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.08.20]
⋄ Mission Institute — also: co‐founder

from 1921

vice president — Missionary Society

1921 – 1931

official (i.e. bishop's judicial vicar) — Warsawtoday: Warsaw city pov., Masovia voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.10.09]
⋄ Archbishop's Metropolitan Court ⋄ Mogilev RC archdiocese

from 1921

secretary — Warsawtoday: Warsaw city pov., Masovia voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.10.09]
⋄ to Mogilev bishop, Abp Edward Ropp — also: Vice–President of the Association for Aid to the Starving in Russia, i.a. led efforts to free Catholic priests and nuns of the Eastern rite imprisoned in Russia

from 1918

membership — Management Board, The Central Welfare Council RGO — also: member of the presidium of RGO (c. 1919‐1921)

from 1918

vicar general — Mogilev RC archdiocese

c. 1918

dean — Smolensktoday: Smolensk oblast, Russia
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2022.01.06]
RC deanery

1916 – 1918

parish priest — Smolensktoday: Smolensk oblast, Russia
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2022.01.06]
⋄ Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary RC parish

1915 – 1916

parish priest — Sankt Petersburgtoday: Saint Petersburg city, Russia
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2020.07.31]
⋄ St Boniface RC parish ⋄ Sankt Petersburgtoday: Saint Petersburg city, Russia
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2020.07.31]
RC deanery

1912 – 1915

PhD student — Rometoday: Rome prov., Lazio reg., Italy
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.12.18]
⋄ canon law, „Angelicum[i.e. Lat. Pontificia Universitas Studiorum a Sancto Thoma Aquinate in Urbe (Eng. Pontifical University of St Thomas Aquinas) (today) / Lat. Pontificium Institutum Internationale (Eng. Pontifical International Institute) (1926‐1963) / Lat. Pontificium Collegium (Eng. Pontifical College) (1906‐1926) / Lat. Collegium (Eng. College) (until 1906)]

from 1910

publisher — weekly, „Under the Sign of the Cross

1908

founder — monthly, „Faith and Life(in Polish, Latvian and Russian)

1908 – 1911

parish priest — Sankt Petersburgtoday: Saint Petersburg city, Russia
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2020.07.31]
⋄ St Casimir („behind Narva Tollgate”) RC parish ⋄ Sankt Petersburgtoday: Saint Petersburg city, Russia
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2020.07.31]
RC deanery

vicar — Sankt Petersburgtoday: Saint Petersburg city, Russia
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2020.07.31]
⋄ St Stanislav the Bishop and Martyr RC parish ⋄ Sankt Petersburgtoday: Saint Petersburg city, Russia
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2020.07.31]
RC deanery

vicar — Pskovtoday: Pskov city reg., Pskov oblast, Russia
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2022.07.16]
⋄ Holy Trinity RC parish ⋄ Sankt Petersburgtoday: Saint Petersburg city, Russia
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2020.07.31]
RC deanery

prefect — Smolensktoday: Smolensk oblast, Russia
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2022.01.06]
⋄ Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary RC parish

vicar — Zagatyetoday: Volkolata ssov., Dokshytsy dist., Vitebsk reg., Belarus
more on
be.wikipedia.org
[access: 2022.06.29]
⋄ Holy Trinity RC parish ⋄ Lyepyeltoday: Lyepyel dist., Vitebsk reg., Belarus
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2022.02.04]
RC deanery

1904 – 1906

student — Sankt Petersburgtoday: Saint Petersburg city, Russia
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2020.07.31]
⋄ philosophy and theology, Imperial Roman Catholic Spiritual Academy (1842‐1918)

till 1904

student — Sankt Petersburgtoday: Saint Petersburg city, Russia
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2020.07.31]
⋄ philosophy and theology, Metropolitan Theological Seminary

author of several dozen articles and studies in many magazines, devoted to the situation and persecution of the Church in Russia, i.a. „Bolshevik Penal Code” (1923) and „Bolshevism and Religion” (1922) published in „General Review

others related
in death

ADAMCZYKClick to display biography Stanislav, BRZĄKAŁAClick to display biography Victor, BURCZYKClick to display biography Felix, BYTOFClick to display biography Peter, CHARSZEWSKIClick to display biography Ignatius, CHYLARECKIClick to display biography Stanislav, CIEMNIAKClick to display biography Louis, CYBULSKIClick to display biography Stanislav, CZAKIClick to display biography Saturnin, CZAPIEWSKIClick to display biography Joseph Leonard, DEMSKIClick to display biography Vladislav, DOERINGClick to display biography Alexander, FIGATClick to display biography Henry, GOŃCZClick to display biography Bernard, GORALClick to display biography Vladislav, GRZEBIELEWSKIClick to display biography Joseph, GUZClick to display biography Joseph Adalbert (Fr Innocent), HEVELKEClick to display biography John, HINZClick to display biography Francis Felix, HINZClick to display biography Thaddeus, JARZĘBSKIClick to display biography Stanislav, JORDANClick to display biography Boleslav, KALINOWSKIClick to display biography Theodore, KARAMUCKIClick to display biography Edmund Vladislav, KARCZYŃSKIClick to display biography Cyril Methodius, KAŹMIERCZAKClick to display biography Bronislav, KLEINClick to display biography John, KOMPFClick to display biography January, KONKOLEWSKIClick to display biography Joachim, KOWNACKIClick to display biography Bronislav, KOZUBEKClick to display biography Roman, KRAUZEClick to display biography Edmund, KRUPIŃSKIClick to display biography Louis, KUBIAKClick to display biography John (Bro. Norbert Mary), KUBICKIClick to display biography Steven, KUBISTAClick to display biography Stanislav, KUPILASClick to display biography Francis, LAPISClick to display biography Casimir, LENARTClick to display biography John, LICZNERSKIClick to display biography Constantine, ŁOSIŃSKIClick to display biography Bernard Anthony, MACIĄTEKClick to display biography Stanislav Peter, MARCHLEWSKIClick to display biography Leonard, MATUSZEWSKIClick to display biography Francis, MĄKOWSKIClick to display biography John, MĘŻNICKIClick to display biography Joseph, MICHNOWSKIClick to display biography Marian John, MITRĘGAClick to display biography Francis, MORKOWSKIClick to display biography Edmund, MOŚCICKIClick to display biography Joseph, NAGÓRSKIClick to display biography Paul Adalbert, NITSCHMANNClick to display biography Adam Robert, NOWAŃSKIClick to display biography Anthony, NOWICKIClick to display biography Alexander, OCHOŃSKIClick to display biography Charles (Fr Chris), PALUCHOWSKIClick to display biography Boleslav, PETRYKOWSKIClick to display biography Steven, PIASZCZYŃSKIClick to display biography Michael, PODLASZEWSKIClick to display biography Francis, POMIANOWSKIClick to display biography Vladislav, RADTKEClick to display biography Steven Boleslav, SĄSAŁAClick to display biography Theodore, SKOBLEWSKIClick to display biography Mieczyslav, SKOWRONClick to display biography Casimir, SOCHACZEWSKIClick to display biography Bronislav Peter, SWINARSKI–PORAJClick to display biography Nicholas, SYNOWIECClick to display biography Boleslav, SZUKALSKIClick to display biography John, SZYMAŃSKIClick to display biography Bruno Peter John, ŚLEDZIŃSKIClick to display biography Joseph, TUSZYŃSKIClick to display biography Joseph, TYMIŃSKIClick to display biography Anthony, WAWRZYNOWICZClick to display biography John, WĄSOWICZClick to display biography Sigismund, WIERZBICKIClick to display biography Sigismund Lawrence, WIERZCHOWSKIClick to display biography Fabian Sebastian, WILLIMSKYClick to display biography Albert, WŁODARCZYKClick to display biography Ignatius, WOHLFEILClick to display biography Robert, WRÓBLEWSKIClick to display biography Bronislav, ZAWISZAClick to display biography Valentine, ZIELIŃSKIClick to display biography Paul Nicholas, ZIEMSKIClick to display biography Alexander Felix, ZIENKOWSKIClick to display biography Vaclav, ŻUCHOWSKIClick to display biography Vaclav

murder sites
camp 
(+ prisoner no)

KL Sachsenhausen (prisoner no: 24349Click to display biography): In Germ. Konzentrationslager (Eng. concentration camp) KL Sachsenhausen, set up in the former Olympic village in 07.1936, hundreds of Polish priests were held in 1940, before being transported to KL Dachau. Some of them perished in KL Sachsenhausen. Murderous medical experiments on prisoners were carried out in the camp. In 1942‐1944 c. 140 prisoners slaved at manufacturing false British pounds, passports, visas, stamps and other documents. Other prisoners also had to do slave work, for Heinkel aircraft manufacturer, AEG and Siemens among others. On average c. 50,000 prisoners were held at any time. Altogether more than 200,000 inmates were in jailed in KL Sachsenhausen and its branched, out of which tens of thousands perished. Prior to Russian arrival mass evacuation was ordered by the Germans and c. 80,000 prisoners were marched west in so‐called „death marches” to other camps, i.e. KL Mauthausen‐Gusen and KL Bergen‐Belsen. The camp got liberated on 22.04.1945. After end of armed hostilities Germans set up there secret camp for German prisoners and „suspicious” Russian soldiers. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2018.11.18]
)

Pawiak: Investigative prison in Warsaw, built by the Russian occupiers of Poland in 1830‐1835. During the Poland partition's period, a Russian investigative prison, both criminal and political. During World War II and the German occupation, the largest German prison in the General Government. Initially, it was subordinate to the Justice Department of the General Governorate, and from 03.1940 Germ. Sicherheitspolizei und des Sicherheitsdienst (Eng. Security Police and Security Service) of the Warsaw District — in particular the German Secret Political Police Gestapo. c. 3,000 prisoners were kept in Pawiak permanently, of which about 2,200 in the men's unit and c. 800 in the women's unit (the so‐called Serbia) — with a „capacity” of c. 1,000 prisoners. In total, in the years 1939‐1944, c. 100,000 Poles passed through the prison, of which c. 37,000 were murdered in executions — from 10.1943 Pawiak prisoners were murdered in open executions on the streets of Warsaw (sometimes several times a day) — during interrogations, in cells or in a prison „hospital”, and c. 60,000 were taken in 95 transports to concentration camps (mainly KL Auischwitz), other places of isolation or to forced labor. The prison Germans demolished during the Warsaw Uprising in 08‐10.1944. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2022.08.17]
)

«Intelligenzaktion»: (Eng. „Action Intelligentsia”) — extermination program of Polish elites, mainly intelligentsia, executed by the Germans right from the start of the occupation in 09.1939 till around 05.1940, mainly on the lands directly incorporated into Germany but also in the so‐called General Governorate where it was called «AB‐aktion». During the first phase right after start of German occupation of Poland implemented as Germ. Unternehmen „Tannenberg” (Eng. „Tannenberg operation”) — plan based on proscription lists of Poles worked out by (Germ. Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen), regarded by Germans as specially dangerous to the German Reich. List contained names of c. 61,000 Poles. Altogether during this genocide Germans methodically murdered c. 50,000 teachers, priests, landowners, social and political activists and retired military. Further 50,000 were sent to concentration camps where most of them perished. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2014.10.04]
)

General Governorate: A separate administrative territorial region set up by the Germans in 1939 after defeat of Poland, which included German‐occupied part of Polish territory that was not directly incorporate into German state. Created as the result of the Ribbentrop‐Molotov Pact, in a political sense, was to recreate the German idea of 1915 (after the defeat of the Russians in the Battle of Gorlice in 05.1915 during World War I) of establishing a Polish enclave within Germany (also called the General Governorate at that time). It was run by the Germans till 1945 and final Russian offensive, and was a part of so‐called Big Germany — Grossdeutschland. Till 31.07.1940 formally known as Germ. Generalgouvernement für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete (Eng. General Governorate for occupied Polish territories) — later as simply Germ. Generalgouvernement (Eng. General Governorate). From 07.1941 expanded to include district Galicia. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2013.12.04]
)

General Governorate: A separate administrative territorial region set up by the Germans in 1939 after defeat of Poland, which included German‐occupied part of Polish territory that was not directly incorporate into German state. Created as the result of the Ribbentrop‐Molotov Pact, in a political sense, was to recreate the German idea of 1915 (after the defeat of the Russians in the Battle of Gorlice in 05.1915 during World War I) of establishing a Polish enclave within Germany (also called the General Governorate at that time). It was run by the Germans till 1945 and final Russian offensive, and was a part of so‐called Big Germany — Grossdeutschland. Till 31.07.1940 formally known as Germ. Generalgouvernement für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete (Eng. General Governorate for occupied Polish territories) — later as simply Germ. Generalgouvernement (Eng. General Governorate). From 07.1941 expanded to include district Galicia. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2013.12.04]
)

Ribbentrop‐Molotov: Genocidal Russian‐German alliance pact between Russian leader Joseph Stalin and German leader Adolf Hitler signed on 23.08.1939 in Moscow by respective foreign ministers, Mr. Vyacheslav Molotov for Russia and Joachim von Ribbentrop for Germany. The pact sanctioned and was the direct cause of joint Russian and German invasion of Poland and the outbreak of the World War II in 09.1939. In a political sense, the pact was an attempt to restore the status quo ante before 1914, with one exception, namely the „commercial” exchange of the so‐called „Kingdom of Poland”, which in 1914 was part of the Russian Empire, fore Eastern Galicia (today's western Ukraine), in 1914 belonging to the Austro‐Hungarian Empire. Galicia, including Lviv, was to be taken over by the Russians, the „Kingdom of Poland” — under the name of the General Governorate — Germany. The resultant „war was one of the greatest calamities and dramas of humanity in history, for two atheistic and anti‐Christian ideologies — national and international socialism — rejected God and His fifth Decalogue commandment: Thou shall not kill!” (Abp Stanislav Gądecki, 01.09.2019). The decisions taken — backed up by the betrayal of the formal allies of Poland, France and Germany, which on 12.09.1939, at a joint conference in Abbeville, decided not to provide aid to attacked Poland and not to take military action against Germany (a clear breach of treaty obligations with Poland) — were on 28.09.1939 slightly altered and made more precise when a treaty on „German‐Russian boundaries and friendship” was agreed by the same murderous signatories. One of its findings was establishment of spheres of influence in Central and Eastern Europe and in consequence IV partition of Poland. In one of its secret annexes agreed, that: „the Signatories will not tolerate on its respective territories any Polish propaganda that affects the territory of the other Side. On their respective territories they will suppress all such propaganda and inform each other of the measures taken to accomplish it”. The agreements resulted in a series of meeting between two genocidal organization representing both sides — German Gestapo and Russian NKVD when coordination of efforts to exterminate Polish intelligentsia and Polish leading classes (in Germany called «Intelligenzaktion», in Russia took the form of Katyń massacres) where discussed. Resulted in deaths of hundreds of thousands of Polish intelligentsia, including thousands of priests presented here, and tens of millions of ordinary people,. The results of this Russian‐German pact lasted till 1989 and are still in evidence even today. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2015.09.30]
)

Pius XI's encyclicals: Facing the creation of two totalitarian systems in Europe, which seemed to compete with each other, though there were more similarities than contradictions between them, Pope Pius XI issued in 03.1937 (within 5 days) two encyclicals. In the „Mit brennender Sorge” (Eng. „With Burning Concern”) published on 14.03.1938, condemned the national socialism prevailing in Germany. The Pope wrote: „Whoever, following the old Germanic‐pre‐Christian beliefs, puts various impersonal fate in the place of a personal God, denies the wisdom of God and Providence […], whoever exalts earthly values: race or nation, or state, or state system, representatives of state power or other fundamental values of human society, […] and makes them the highest standard of all values, including religious ones, and idolizes them, this one […] is far from true faith in God and from a worldview corresponding to such faith”. On 19.03.1937, published „Divini Redemptoris” (Eng. „Divine Redeemer”), in which criticized Russian communism, dialectical materialism and the class struggle theory. The Pope wrote: „Communism deprives man of freedom, and therefore the spiritual basis of all life norms. It deprives the human person of all his dignity and any moral support with which he could resist the onslaught of blind passions […] This is the new gospel that Bolshevik and godless communism preaches as a message of salvation and redemption of humanity”… Pius XI demanded that the established human law be subjected to the natural law of God , recommended the implementation of the ideal of a Christian state and society, and called on Catholics to resist. Two years later, National Socialist Germany and Communist Russia came together and started World War II. (more on: www.vatican.vaClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2023.05.28]
, www.vatican.vaClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2023.05.28]
)

sources

personal:
www.kul.lublin.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2013.05.19]
, polacywberlinie.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2013.05.19]
, www.ipsb.nina.gov.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2019.05.30]
, www.katolicy.euClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2021.12.19]

bibliographical:
Fate of the Catholic clergy in USSR 1917‐1939. Martyrology”, Roman Dzwonkowski, SAC, ed. Science Society KUL, 2003, Lublin
original images:
audiovis.nac.gov.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2019.05.30]
, www.ipsb.nina.gov.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2019.05.30]

LETTER to CUSTODIAN/ADMINISTRATOR

If you have an Email client on your communicator/computer — such as Mozilla Thunderbird, Windows Mail or Microsoft Outlook, described at WikipediaPatrz:
en.wikipedia.org
, among others  — try the link below, please:

LETTER to CUSTODIAN/ADMINISTRATORClick and try to call your own Email client

If however you do not run such a client or the above link is not active please send an email to the Custodian/Administrator using your account — in your customary email/correspondence engine — at the following address:

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MARTYROLOGY: OKOŁO-KUŁAK Anthony

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