• OUR LADY of CZĘSTOCHOWA: st Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionOUR LADY of CZĘSTOCHOWA
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
link to OUR LADY of PERPETUAL HELP in SŁOMCZYN infoSITE LOGO

Roman Catholic
St Sigismund parish
05-507 Słomczyn
85 Wiślana Str.
Konstancin deanery
Warsaw archdiocese, Poland

  • St SIGISMUND: St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
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Martyrology of the clergy — Poland

XX century (1914 – 1989)

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  • CHOMA Edward Anthony - Before 1938, source: pl.wikipedia.org, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOCHOMA Edward Anthony
    Before 1938
    source: pl.wikipedia.org
    own collection
  • CHOMA Edward Anthony, source: episkopat.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOCHOMA Edward Anthony
    source: episkopat.pl
    own collection
  • CHOMA Edward Anthony, source: jestemdumny.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOCHOMA Edward Anthony
    source: jestemdumny.pl
    own collection
  • CHOMA Edward Anthony, source: jestemdumny.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOCHOMA Edward Anthony
    source: jestemdumny.pl
    own collection

surname

CHOMA

forename(s)

Edward Anthony (pl. Edward Antoni)

  • CHOMA Edward Anthony - Commemorative plaque, Assumption of Blessed Virgin Mary into Heaven military church, Skierniewice, source: jestemdumny.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOCHOMA Edward Anthony
    Commemorative plaque, Assumption of Blessed Virgin Mary into Heaven military church, Skierniewice
    source: jestemdumny.pl
    own collection
  • CHOMA Edward Anthony - Commemorative plaque, St George garrison church, Łódź, source: rzeszow.ipn.gov.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOCHOMA Edward Anthony
    Commemorative plaque, St George garrison church, Łódź
    source: rzeszow.ipn.gov.pl
    own collection
  • CHOMA Edward Anthony - Commemorative plaque, Assumption of Blessed Virgin Mary into Heaven military church, Skierniewice, source: lowicz.gosc.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOCHOMA Edward Anthony
    Commemorative plaque, Assumption of Blessed Virgin Mary into Heaven military church, Skierniewice
    source: lowicz.gosc.pl
    own collection
  • CHOMA Edward Anthony - Commemorative plaque, monument, Wąwolnica, source: radio.lublin.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOCHOMA Edward Anthony
    Commemorative plaque, monument, Wąwolnica
    source: radio.lublin.pl
    own collection
  • CHOMA Edward Anthony - Commemorative plaque, Exultation of the Holy Cross monastery, Kalwaria Pacławska, source: ofm.krakow.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOCHOMA Edward Anthony
    Commemorative plaque, Exultation of the Holy Cross monastery, Kalwaria Pacławska
    source: ofm.krakow.pl
    own collection
  • CHOMA Edward Anthony - Commemorative plaque, military field cathedral, Warsaw, source: own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOCHOMA Edward Anthony
    Commemorative plaque, military field cathedral, Warsaw
    source: own collection
  • CHOMA Edward Anthony - Commemorative plaque, military field cathedral, Warsaw, source: own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOCHOMA Edward Anthony
    Commemorative plaque, military field cathedral, Warsaw
    source: own collection
  • CHOMA Edward Anthony - Commemorative plaque, St Stanislaus church, Sankt Petersburg, source: ipn.gov.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOCHOMA Edward Anthony
    Commemorative plaque, St Stanislaus church, Sankt Petersburg
    source: ipn.gov.pl
    own collection

function

diocesan priest

creed

Latin (Roman Catholic) Church RCmore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2014.09.21]

diocese / province

Lviv archdiocesemore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2013.05.19]

Military Ordinariate of Polandmore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2014.12.20]

honorary titles

Order of „Polonia Restitutamore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2019.04.16]

Medal of Independencemore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2019.02.02]

Cross of Valourmore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2019.04.16]

Gold „Cross of Meritmore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2019.04.16]

Lviv Defense Cross
Ten Years of Independence Medalmore on
pl.wikipedia.org
[access: 2019.10.13]

Commemorative Medal for War of 1918–21more on
pl.wikipedia.org
[access: 2019.10.13]

Bronze Medal „For Long Servicemore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2020.05.25]

Eaglets” commemorative badgemore on
pl.wikipedia.org
[access: 2023.12.15]

War Order of Virtuti Militari — Silver (5th Class)more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2019.10.13]

September Campaign Crossmore on
pl.wikipedia.org
[access: 2023.11.24]

date and place
of death

08.04.1940

Katyntoday: Smolensk reg., Smolensk oblast, Russia
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2020.09.24]

alt. dates and places
of death

09.04.1940, 10.04.1940

Smolensktoday: Smolensk oblast, Russia
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2022.01.06]

details of death

At the beginning of World War I, in 1915, when was a vicar in Bolekhiv, also ministered in a field hospital of the Austro–Hungarian Monarchy’s Army as a Germ. „freiwilliger Krankenpfleger” (Eng. nursing volunteer). On 15.09.1917 drafted into the Austro–Hungarian army. On 29.09.1917 appointed field vicar for the duration of the war. Served in the Military Superiorate in Przemyśl. From 16.12.1917 chaplain of the 105th Field Hospital (with which was on the Russian and then Italian front). On 02.09.1918 chaplain of the 100th Infantry Regiment, whose reinforcement district was Cieszyn — hence called Silesia–Moravia Regiment — which was part of the 12th Infantry Division, as part of the 1st Corps, fighting on the Italian front.

From 03.11.1918 resided in Lviv. Was there when the end of World War I, the fall of the German and Austro–Hungarian Empires, and the rebirth of the Polish state took place.

Took part in the defense of Lviv during the Polish–Ukrainian War of 1918‐1919. Was the chaplain of the voluntary 3rd Defense Section of Lviv, in the hospital for the wounded organized at the Stanislav Konarski's School, and later at the St Teresa Institute. From 29.11.1918, chaplain of the 1st Lviv Rifle Regiment (the backbone of which were the defenders of the 3rd Defense Section, from 08.04.1919 — the 38th Lviv Rifle Regiment). After the blockade of Lviv was broken, as a parish priest of the 4th Infantry Division, took part in battles against the Ukrainians in Eastern Lesser Poland.

Then, as part of the same Division, participated — from 09.1919 — in the Polish–Russian War of 1919‐1921, initially on the Volyn front. In 04‐05.1920 took part in the so‐called Kiev expedition. From 05.1920 defended the line of the Berezina River against the Russian invasion. Next participated in retreat battles along the line of withdrawal Nyasvizh — Baranavichy — Slonim — Vawkavysk — Siedlce — Góra Kalwaria. After the Russian defeat in the Battle of Warsaw on c. 15.08.1920 (known as the Miracle on the Vistula), together with his Division returned in 09.1920 to Eastern Lesser Poland, where, near Zhovkva, took part in battles with the Russian 1st Cavalry Army of Semyon Budyonny. In 10.1921, the Division was again in the north and fought along the Polish–Lithuanian demarcation line on the Neman and Mordeczanka rivers. Ended the participation in the hostilities on 16.11.1920, settling with the Division in the Włocławek garrison.

After the German invasion of Poland on 01.09.1939 (the Russians attacked Poland 17 days later) and the start of World War II, participated in the defensive war as a chaplain of the Polish Army fighting against the Germans (assignment and combat route are unknown).

After the beginning of the Russian occupation, arrested by the Russians in unknown circumstances.

Initially detained in the NKVD filtration camp PFL Shepetivka.

Then imprisoned in a special NKVD concentration camp in Starobilsk.

Before Christmas 1939, excluded from the group of prisoners of war in the camp. Further fate unclear. Till 02.03.1940 was registered as a prisoner of Starobilsk, which may mean that was kept in a special camp cell or outside the camp, in one of the places subordinated to the camp command.

On 02.03.1940 transported to Moscow, to the NKVD headquarters and Butyrki prison.

On 17.03.1940 or 27.03.1940, moved to the concentration camp in Kozelsk. Held prob. in the camp's solitary confinement, in one of the specially protected towers of the monastery in which the Russians organized Kozelsk camp.

From Kozelsk — his name is on the NKVD deportation list No. 015/2, item 69 (case No. 4911), prepared in Moscow NKVD HQ on 05.04.1940, with an order to be placed at the disposal of the head of the NKVD Directorate in Smolensk — deported in 04.1940 (the date is unknown, but judging by the date of preparation of the deportation list, deportation took place — as in other known cases — shortly thereafter) to the execution site in the Katyn forest or in the basement of the internal prison of the Regional Directorate of the NKVD in Smolensk, and murdered there.

By Polish Minister of Defence’s decision No. 439/MON of 05.10.2007 posthumously promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel.

cause of death

mass murder

perpetrators

Russians

date and place
of birth

26.12.1889

Zolochivtoday: Zolochiv urban hrom., Zolochiv rai., Lviv, Ukraine
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.12.19]

presbyter (holy orders)
ordination

04.08.1913 (Lvivtoday: Lviv urban hrom., Lviv rai., Lviv, Ukraine
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2022.01.16]
)

positions held

1936 – 1939

parish priest — Radomtoday: Radom city pov., Masovia voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.09.29]
⋄ Command of the Corps District DOK No. I Warsaw, Polish Armed Forces ⋄ St Stanislav the Bishop and Martyr RC military parish — also: chaplain of the Radom Garrison, where the Denis Czachowski's 72nd Infantry Regiment was stationed

1930 – 1936

parish priest — Slonimtoday: Slonim dist., Grodno reg., Belarus
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.09.29]
⋄ Command of the Corps District DOK No. IX Brest on Bug, Polish Armed Forces ⋄ Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary RC military parish

1926 – 1930

parish priest — Skierniewicetoday: Skierniewice city pov., Łódź voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.12.18]
⋄ Command of the Corps District DOK No. IV Łódź, Polish Armed Forces ⋄ Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary RC military parish — saved from destruction and rebuilt the St Andrew the Apostle garrison church (allocating additional income from the bookbinding services he performed)

1921 – 1926

head/manager — Skierniewicetoday: Skierniewice city pov., Łódź voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.12.18]
⋄ Roman Catholic Military Pastoral Area, Command of the Corps District DOK No. IV Łódź, Polish Armed Forces

16.12.1921

RC senior military chaplain — Polish Armed Forces — commissioned, with seniority of 01.06.1919, in the major rank

1918 – 1921

chaplain — 4th Infantry Division, Polish Armed Forces

1917 – 1918

soldier — Austro–Hungarian Imperial Army

1916 – 1917

curatus/rector/expositus — Buryakivkatoday: Tovste hrom., Chortkiv rai., Ternopil, Ukraine
more on
uk.wikipedia.org
[access: 2022.06.29]
⋄ St Joseph Spouse of the Blessed Virgin Mary RC church ⋄ Yazlovetstoday: Buchach urban hrom., Chortkiv rai., Ternopil, Ukraine
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2020.11.15]
, Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary RC parish ⋄ Yazlovetstoday: Buchach urban hrom., Chortkiv rai., Ternopil, Ukraine
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2020.11.15]
RC deanery

1916

vicar — Yazlovetstoday: Buchach urban hrom., Chortkiv rai., Ternopil, Ukraine
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2020.11.15]
⋄ Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary RC parish ⋄ Yazlovetstoday: Buchach urban hrom., Chortkiv rai., Ternopil, Ukraine
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2020.11.15]
RC deanery

1913 – 1916

vicar — Bolekhivtoday: Bolekhiv urban hrom., Kalush rai., Stanislaviv/Ivano‐Frankivsk, Ukraine
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2020.10.13]
⋄ Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary RC parish ⋄ Dolynatoday: Dolyna urban hrom., Kalush rai., Stanislaviv/Ivano‐Frankivsk, Ukraine
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2020.11.20]
RC deanery

till 1913

student — Lvivtoday: Lviv urban hrom., Lviv rai., Lviv, Ukraine
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2022.01.16]
⋄ Department of Theology, John Casimir University [i.e. clandestine John Casimir University (1941‐1944) / Ivan Franko University (1940‐1941) / John Casimir University (1919‐1939) / Franciscan University (1817‐1918)]

1909 – 1913

student — Lvivtoday: Lviv urban hrom., Lviv rai., Lviv, Ukraine
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2022.01.16]
⋄ philosophy and theology, Metropolitan Theological Seminary

others related
in death

ALEKSANDROWICZClick to display biography Anthony, CICHOWICZClick to display biography Nicholas, DRABCZYŃSKIClick to display biography Ignatius Marian (Cl. Dominic), FEDOROŃKOClick to display biography Simon, ILKÓWClick to display biography Nicholas, KONTEKClick to display biography Stanislav, POHORECKIClick to display biography John, POTOCKIClick to display biography John Josaphat, SUCHCICKIClick to display biography Casimir, URBANClick to display biography Vladislav Michael, ZIÓŁKOWSKIClick to display biography John Leo, SZEPTYCKIClick to display biography Andrew Mary Stanislav

murder sites
camp 
(+ prisoner no)

Katyn (NKWD murders 1940): From 03.04.1940 till 12.05.1940 Russians in a planned genocide executed in Katyń c. 4,400 Polish POWs kept in Kozielsk concentration camp. The victims were brought by train through Smolensk to the Gnezdowo station in convoys, in groups of 50 to 344 people. From the station to the crime scene, in the so‐called the Kozye Hory area —NKVD recreation center — the victims were transported in a prison bus (known as „chornyi voron”, i.e. black crow). At the site the younger and stronger had military coats put over their heads and their hands were tied behind their backs with a Russian‐made hemp rope, after which they were all killed at short distance with a shot from a 7.65 mm Walther pistol, usually one to the back of the head. Some victims were pierced with a square Russian bayonet. A number of the victims were prob. murdered in the basements of the so‐called internal prison of the NKVD Regional Directorate in Smolensk, where the victims were placed in a sewer manhole, their heads were placed on the bank, and then they were shot in the back of the head. The murdered were buried in eight pits ‐ mass graves. The victims included, among others: Rear Admiral Xavier Czernicki, Generals Bronislav Bohatyrewicz, Henry Minkiewicz and Mechislav Smorawiński, the Chief Orthodox Chaplain of the Polish Army, Lieutenant Colonel Simon Fedorońko, the Chief Rabbi of the Polish Army, Major Baruch Steinberg, 9 Roman Catholic priests, one Greek Catholic and one Evangelical priest, as well as one woman — a pilot Second Lieutenant Janine Lewandowska. The murders were part of an organized Russian genocidal operation against Polish prisoners of war, bearing all the hallmarks of genocide, known as the «Katyn genocide». (more on: pl.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2012.11.23]
, en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2014.09.21]
)

«Katyn genocide 1940»: On 05.03.1940, the Russian Commie‐Nazi authorities — the Politburo of the Russian Communist Party — made a formal decision to exterminate tens of thousands of Polish intelligentsia and military personnel held in Russian camps as a consequence of the German‐Russian Ribbentrop‐Molotov Agreement, the invasion of Poland and the annexation of half of Poland in 09.1939, and the beginning of World War II. The implementing act was order No. 00350 of the head of the NKVD, Mr Lavrentyi Beria, on the „discharge of NKVD prisons” in Ukraine and Belarus. The entire action — the murders were committed, among others, in Katyn, Kharkov, Tver, Bykovnia and Kuropaty — was coordinated centrally from the NKVD headquarters in Moscow. This is evidenced by the so‐called deportation lists of subsequent groups of Polish prisoners (usually about 100 people) from NKVD camps sent to places of execution, prepared and distributed a few days before the executions from Moscow. It is also evidenced by the earlier deportations of Polish priests from the Kozelsk, Ostashkov and Starobilsk NKVD camps to NKVD prison in Moscow, or their isolation, just before Christmas on 25.12.1939, prob. in order to deprive Polish prisoners of spiritual care at that time — clearly actions controlled from the NKVD HQ in Moscow. There are indications — i.e. four so‐called „NKVD‐Gestapo Methodical Conferences” of 1939‐1940: in Brest on Bug, Przemyśl, Zakopane and Cracow — of close collaboration between Germans and Russians in realization of plans of total extermination of Polish nation, its elites in particular — decision that prob. was confirmed during meeting of socialist leaders of Germany: Mr Heinrich Himmler, and Russia: Mr Lavrentyi Beria, in another German leader, Mr Hermann Göring, hunting lodge in Rominty in Romincka Forest in East Prussia. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2023.12.15]
)

KLW Kozelsk (prisoner no: 4911): Russian Rus. Концентрационный Лагерь для Военнопленных (Eng. POW Concentration Camp) KLW, run by genocidal Russian NKVD organization, for Poles arrested after the invasion in 1939, operating in 1939‐1940 in Kozelsk — on the premises of the 18th century Orthodox Stauropygial Introduction of the Mother of God into the Temple Optyn Monastery, shut down and robbed by the Russian Bolsheviks in 1923. In 04‐05.1940, c. 4,594 people were detained there, who were then — as part of the implementation of the decision of the Russian authorities to exterminate dozens thousands of Polish intelligentsia and military personnel — murdered in Katyn. The prisoners included one rear admiral of the Polish Navy, four generals, c. 100 colonels and lieutenant colonels, c. 300 majors and c. 1,000 captains and captains of the Polish Army. Around half of them were reserve officers, including: 21 professors, associate professors and lecturers at universities, over 300 doctors, several hundred lawyers, several hundred engineers, several hundred teachers and many writers, journalists and publicists. There was also one woman, 2nd Leutenant pilot Janine Lewandowska. (more on: pl.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2012.11.23]
)

Moscow (Butyrki): Harsh transit and interrogation prison in Moscow — for political prisoners — where Russians held and murdered thousands of Poles. Founded prob. in XVII century. In XIX century many Polish insurgents (Polish uprisings of 1831 and 1863) were held there. During Communist regime a place of internment for political prisoners prior to a transfer to Russian slave labour complex Gulag. During the Great Purge c. 20,000 inmates were held there at any time (c. 170 in every cell). Thousands were murdered. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2020.05.01]
)

KLW Starobilsk: Russian Rus. Концентрационный Лагерь для Военнопленных (Eng. POW Concentration Camp) KLW, run by genocidal Russian NKVD organization, for Poles arrested after the invasion in 1939, operating in 1939‐1940 in Starobilsk — on the premises of the „All Afflicted Joy” Icon of Our Lady Orthodox monastery, looted and closed by Russian Bolsheviks in 1923. In 04.1940 c. 3,800 were kept there (in 11.1939 — 11,262) — per captive there was c. 1.25 m2 of bunk space on which they had to sleep, eat and keep their belongings, initially the receiving only one meal a day. Subsequently— as the fulfillment of Russian government decision to exterminate Polish intelligentsia and prisoners of war camps (Polish holocaust) — were executed in Kharkiv. Among the victims were 8 generals, 55 colonels, 127 lieutenant colonels, 230 majors, c. 1,000 captains, and c. 2,450 lieutenants and second lieutenants of the Polish Army. Almost half were reserve officers: over 20 professors of universities, all without exception scientific staff of the Anti‐Gas Institute of the Polish Army and almost the entire staff of the Institute of Armament of the Polish Army, c. 400 doctors, several hundred lawyers, several hundred engineers, c. 100 teachers, c. 600 pilots , many social activists, several dozen writers and journalists. Used as a concentration camp for Poles later as well. (more on: pl.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2012.11.23]
)

NKVD Shepetivka POW camp: Russian Rus. Проверочно‐Фильтрационный Ла́герь (Eng. Testing and Filtration Camp) PFL, where the genocidal Russian NKVD organization carried out selection and isolation of the most „dangerous” or most valuable prisoners — established after the Russian invasion of Poland on 17.09.1939, the establishment of the NKVD Board for Prisoners of War and Internees on 19.09.1939 by the head of the NKVD, Lavrenty Beria, and the order to establish a number of camps for Polish POWs. Operated in 1939‐1940 in Shepetivka, village on the then Polish Ukraine. C. 20,000 prisoners — Polish intelligentsia and soldiers — were held there in extremely harsh conditions: POWs had to sleep on the earth, without food, having to queue few hours for a glass of water. Next POWs were sent to Russian concentration camps and then to mass execution sites. (more on: pl.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2013.12.04]
)

Ribbentrop‐Molotov: Genocidal Russian‐German alliance pact between Russian leader Joseph Stalin and German leader Adolf Hitler signed on 23.08.1939 in Moscow by respective foreign ministers, Mr. Vyacheslav Molotov for Russia and Joachim von Ribbentrop for Germany. The pact sanctioned and was the direct cause of joint Russian and German invasion of Poland and the outbreak of the World War II in 09.1939. In a political sense, the pact was an attempt to restore the status quo ante before 1914, with one exception, namely the „commercial” exchange of the so‐called „Kingdom of Poland”, which in 1914 was part of the Russian Empire, fore Eastern Galicia (today's western Ukraine), in 1914 belonging to the Austro‐Hungarian Empire. Galicia, including Lviv, was to be taken over by the Russians, the „Kingdom of Poland” — under the name of the General Governorate — Germany. The resultant „war was one of the greatest calamities and dramas of humanity in history, for two atheistic and anti‐Christian ideologies — national and international socialism — rejected God and His fifth Decalogue commandment: Thou shall not kill!” (Abp Stanislav Gądecki, 01.09.2019). The decisions taken — backed up by the betrayal of the formal allies of Poland, France and Germany, which on 12.09.1939, at a joint conference in Abbeville, decided not to provide aid to attacked Poland and not to take military action against Germany (a clear breach of treaty obligations with Poland) — were on 28.09.1939 slightly altered and made more precise when a treaty on „German‐Russian boundaries and friendship” was agreed by the same murderous signatories. One of its findings was establishment of spheres of influence in Central and Eastern Europe and in consequence IV partition of Poland. In one of its secret annexes agreed, that: „the Signatories will not tolerate on its respective territories any Polish propaganda that affects the territory of the other Side. On their respective territories they will suppress all such propaganda and inform each other of the measures taken to accomplish it”. The agreements resulted in a series of meeting between two genocidal organization representing both sides — German Gestapo and Russian NKVD when coordination of efforts to exterminate Polish intelligentsia and Polish leading classes (in Germany called «Intelligenzaktion», in Russia took the form of Katyń massacres) where discussed. Resulted in deaths of hundreds of thousands of Polish intelligentsia, including thousands of priests presented here, and tens of millions of ordinary people,. The results of this Russian‐German pact lasted till 1989 and are still in evidence even today. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2015.09.30]
)

Pius XI's encyclicals: Facing the creation of two totalitarian systems in Europe, which seemed to compete with each other, though there were more similarities than contradictions between them, Pope Pius XI issued in 03.1937 (within 5 days) two encyclicals. In the „Mit brennender Sorge” (Eng. „With Burning Concern”) published on 14.03.1938, condemned the national socialism prevailing in Germany. The Pope wrote: „Whoever, following the old Germanic‐pre‐Christian beliefs, puts various impersonal fate in the place of a personal God, denies the wisdom of God and Providence […], whoever exalts earthly values: race or nation, or state, or state system, representatives of state power or other fundamental values of human society, […] and makes them the highest standard of all values, including religious ones, and idolizes them, this one […] is far from true faith in God and from a worldview corresponding to such faith”. On 19.03.1937, published „Divini Redemptoris” (Eng. „Divine Redeemer”), in which criticized Russian communism, dialectical materialism and the class struggle theory. The Pope wrote: „Communism deprives man of freedom, and therefore the spiritual basis of all life norms. It deprives the human person of all his dignity and any moral support with which he could resist the onslaught of blind passions […] This is the new gospel that Bolshevik and godless communism preaches as a message of salvation and redemption of humanity”… Pius XI demanded that the established human law be subjected to the natural law of God , recommended the implementation of the ideal of a Christian state and society, and called on Catholics to resist. Two years later, National Socialist Germany and Communist Russia came together and started World War II. (more on: www.vatican.vaClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2023.05.28]
, www.vatican.vaClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2023.05.28]
)

Polish‐Russian war of 1919‐1921: War for independence of Poland and its borders. Poland regained independence in 1918 but had to fight for its borders with former imperial powers, in particular Russia. Russia planned to incite Bolshevik‐like revolutions in the Western Europe and thus invaded Poland. Russian invaders were defeated in 08.1920 in a battle called Warsaw battle („Vistula river miracle”, one of the 10 most important battles in history, according to some historians). Thanks to this victory Poland recaptured part of the lands lost during partitions of Poland in XVIII century, and Europe was saved from the genocidal Communism. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2014.12.20]
)

Polish‐Ukrainian war of 1918‐1919: One of the wars for borders of the newly reborn Poland. At the end of 1918 on the former Austro‐Hungarian empire’s territory, based on the Ukrainian military units of the former Austro‐Hungarian army, Ukrainians waged war against Poland. In particular attempted to create foundation of an independent state and attacked Lviv. Thanks to heroic stance of Lviv inhabitants, in particular young generation of Poles — called since then Lviv eaglets — the city was recaptured by Poles and for a number of months successfully defended against furious Ukrainian attacks. In 1919 Poland — its newly created army — pushed Ukrainian forces far to the east and south, regaining control over its territory. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2017.05.20]
)

sources

personal:
www.ordynariat.wp.mil.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2012.11.23]
, cracovia-leopolis.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2013.01.26]
, kapelanikatynscy.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2023.12.15]
, episkopat.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2019.10.13]

bibliographical:
Register of Latin rite Lviv metropolis clergy’s losses in 1939‐45”, Józef Krętosz, Maria Pawłowiczowa, editors, Opole, 2005
Biographical lexicon of Lviv Roman Catholic Metropoly clergy victims of the II World War 1939‐1945”, Mary Pawłowiczowa (ed.), Fr Joseph Krętosz (ed.), Holy Cross Publishing, Opole, 2007
Schematismus Universi Saecularis et Regularis Cleri Archi Diaeceseos Metropol. Leopol. Rit. Lat.”, Lviv Metropolitan Curia, from 1860 till 1938
original images:
pl.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2017.05.20]
, episkopat.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2019.10.13]
, jestemdumny.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2023.12.15]
, jestemdumny.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2023.12.15]
, jestemdumny.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2023.12.15]
, rzeszow.ipn.gov.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2023.12.15]
, lowicz.gosc.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2017.01.21]
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[access: 2022.05.23]
, ofm.krakow.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2022.05.23]
, www.katedrapolowa.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2014.01.16]
, ipn.gov.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2019.02.02]

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