• OUR LADY of CZĘSTOCHOWA: st Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionOUR LADY of CZĘSTOCHOWA
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
link to OUR LADY of PERPETUAL HELP in SŁOMCZYN infoSITE LOGO

Roman Catholic
St Sigismund parish
05-507 Słomczyn
85 Wiślana Str.
Konstancin deanery
Warsaw archdiocese, Poland

  • St SIGISMUND: St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
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Martyrology of the clergy — Poland

XX century (1914 – 1989)

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  • WILKANS Julian - 08.1936, Poznań, source: www.audiovis.nac.gov.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOWILKANS Julian
    08.1936, Poznań
    source: www.audiovis.nac.gov.pl
    own collection
  • WILKANS Julian - 08.1932, Poznań; source: thanks to kindness of Fr Lester Zych (private correspondence, 08.03.2024) (www.audiovis.nac.gov.pl), own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOWILKANS Julian
    08.1932, Poznań
    source: thanks to kindness of Fr Lester Zych (private correspondence, 08.03.2024) (www.audiovis.nac.gov.pl)
    own collection
  • WILKANS Julian - 04.10.1931, Biedrusko, source: www.audiovis.nac.gov.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOWILKANS Julian
    04.10.1931, Biedrusko
    source: www.audiovis.nac.gov.pl
    own collection
  • WILKANS Julian - 19.11.1930, Poznań, source: audiovis.nac.gov.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOWILKANS Julian
    19.11.1930, Poznań
    source: audiovis.nac.gov.pl
    own collection
  • WILKANS Julian - 01.1931, Poznań, source: audiovis.nac.gov.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOWILKANS Julian
    01.1931, Poznań
    source: audiovis.nac.gov.pl
    own collection
  • WILKANS Julian - 19—20.05.1929, Biedrusko, source: www.wbc.poznan.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOWILKANS Julian
    19—20.05.1929, Biedrusko
    source: www.wbc.poznan.pl
    own collection
  • WILKANS Julian - autumn of 1919, Bobruysk, Belarus, source: www.facebook.com, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOWILKANS Julian
    autumn of 1919, Bobruysk, Belarus
    source: www.facebook.com
    own collection
  • WILKANS Julian, source: www.wtg-gniazdo.org, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOWILKANS Julian
    source: www.wtg-gniazdo.org
    own collection

surname

WILKANS

forename(s)

Julian

  • WILKANS Julian - Commemorative plaque, cathedral, Gniezno; source: thanks to Mr Jerzy Andrzejewski's kindness, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOWILKANS Julian
    Commemorative plaque, cathedral, Gniezno
    source: thanks to Mr Jerzy Andrzejewski's kindness
    own collection
  • WILKANS Julian - Commemorative plaque, cathedral, Gniezno; source: thanks to Mr Jerzy Andrzejewski's kindness, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOWILKANS Julian
    Commemorative plaque, cathedral, Gniezno
    source: thanks to Mr Jerzy Andrzejewski's kindness
    own collection
  • WILKANS Julian - Commemorative plaque, military field cathedral, Warsaw, source: own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOWILKANS Julian
    Commemorative plaque, military field cathedral, Warsaw
    source: own collection
  • WILKANS Julian - Commemorative plaque, military field cathedral, Warsaw, source: own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOWILKANS Julian
    Commemorative plaque, military field cathedral, Warsaw
    source: own collection

function

diocesan priest

creed

Latin (Roman Catholic) Church RCmore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2014.09.21]

diocese / province

Gniezno and Poznań archdiocese (aeque principaliter)more on
www.archpoznan.pl
[access: 2012.11.23]

Military Ordinariate of Polandmore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2014.12.20]

honorary titles

prelatemore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2014.11.14]

Papal chamberlainmore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2014.11.22]

Officer's Cross „Polonia Restitutamore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2019.04.16]

Gold „Cross of Meritmore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2019.04.16]

Ten Years of Independence Medalmore on
pl.wikipedia.org
[access: 2019.10.13]

Medal of Independencemore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2019.02.02]

Commemorative Medal for War of 1918–21more on
pl.wikipedia.org
[access: 2019.10.13]

date and place
of death

05.12.1942

KL Dachauconcentration camp
today: Dachau, Upper Bavaria reg., Bavaria state, Germany

more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2016.05.30]

details of death

After the outbreak of World War I, drafted into the German army. Throughout the war, from 02.08.1914 to 10.11.1918, was the chaplain of the German army garrison in Inowrocław.

Before the outbreak of the Greater Poland Uprising of 1918‐1919, was active in Inowrocław, in a very dynamic situation, in the Clandestine Inter–Party Citizens' Committee, which, after the fall of the German Empire (Emperor Wilhelm abdicated on 09.11.1918), an armistice on 11.11.1918 in Compiègne between the parties fighting in World War I, which meant the end of the war, and the declaration of Poland's independence on the same day, revealed its=self and attempted to cooperate with the Polish–German Soldiers', Workers' and Citizens' Council, established on 10.11.1918 — following the example of the Russian Bolshevik councils. Became a representative of the Citizens' Committee on the Soldiers' Council. In the name of the Council, initiated the establishment of Polish authorities in Kruszwica.

As a result of the development of the situation and increasingly clear divisions, on 28.11.1918, the Polish People's Council was established in Inowrocław (a similar German Volksrat People's Council was established on 06.12.1918), which on 01.12.1918 gave green light to the formation of Polish People's Guard militia units, the members of which were mainly representatives of the Polish so far Clandestine Military Committee. Became the council's liaison with the Poznań Supreme People's Council. Participated in talks between the command of the German military outpost in Inowrocław and representatives of the Council.

Finally, on 27.12.1918, the Greater Poland Uprising broke out, and on 06.01.1919, the insurgents liberated Inowrocław, which returned to Poland after over a hundred years.

Immediately afterwards, joined the newly formed Polish Army. Became the chaplain of the 1st Greater Poland Rifle Regiment, formed by order of the General Command No. 14 of 19.01.1919, and sworn in on 26.01.1919 in Poznań. Prob. from 30.11.1918 was stationed with Regiment in Biedrusko, where its formation was being completed, and then, starting from 17.03.1919, took part in the Polish–Ukrainian war of 1919‐1921, initially in the fight to unblock Lviv, which was surrounded by Ukrainians (relief of Lviv), and ending on 19.05.1919 with capture of Stryi.

After returning with the Regiment to Poznań, on 01.07.1919 was promoted to the position of pastor of the 1st Greater Poland Rifle Division. Prob. together with it — on 10.12.1918 renamed as the 14th Greater Poland Infantry Division — took part in the Polish–Russian war of 1919‐1921. On 08.09.1919 its units took part in the capture of Minsk, and on 27.08.1919 in the capture of Bobruisk. For the next 11 months they defended the line of the Berezina River.

In 07.1920, during the Russian offensive, the Division withdrew from Belarus to take part on 31.07‐07.08.1920 in the defensive battle on the Bug River (including a successful counter–attack near Janów Podlaski). Finally, it took part in the victorious Battle of Warsaw (known as the Miracle on the Vistula), which began on c. 15.08.1920 with a Polish counterattack from the Wieprz River.

On 16‐17.08.1920, it set out from Dęblin to drive the Russians out, through Garwolin to Mińsk Mazowiecki. Then, in pursuit of the fleeing Russians, it reached Belarus through Brest–Litovsk.

In peacetime after 1920 was a chaplain of the Polish Army in active service. Decommissioned on 31.03.1939.

During the mobilization in 08.1939, joined the „Poznań” Army, and after the German and Russian invasion of the Republic of Poland in 09.1939 and the start of World War II, covered its entire combat route with it — from 05.09.1939, due to the Germans' encirclement of Greater Poland region without launching a full scale attack, marched with the Army east, towards Warsaw; from 09.09.1939, took part in the largest battle of the 09.1939 Campaign, the Battle of Bzura, until the Polish defeat and dissolution of the Army on 21.09.1939; then managed to get through to Warsaw, besieged by the Germans, and there ministered in one of the field hospitals. Was in Warsaw on the day of the its capitulation on 28.09.1939 and the beginning of the German occupation.

Avoided arrest and managed to get back to his parish, Jarząbkowo.

There — or in the neighboring Niechanowo parish, which administered from 1940, after the Germans arrested its parish priest, Fr John Szlachta — was arrested on 01.10.1941 by the Germans.

Held in the KL Posen concentration camp (Fort VII), and then from 10.10.1941 in the Ląd transit camp.

Finally, on 30.10.1941 transported to KL Dachau concentration camp, where perished.

cause of death

extermination: exhaustion and starvation

perpetrators

Germans

date and place
of birth

18.12.1886

Oćwiekatoday: Gąsawa gm., Żnin pov., Kuyavia‐Pomerania voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.12.18]

presbyter (holy orders)
ordination

30.01.1910 (Poznań cathedralmore on
pl.wikipedia.org
[access: 2014.11.14]
)

positions held

1939 – 1941

parish priest — Jarząbkowotoday: Niechanowo gm., Gniezno pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2022.08.05]
⋄ St Martin, the Bishop and Confessor RC parish ⋄ Wrześniatoday: Września gm., Września pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.06.20]
RC deanery — prob. from c. 08.1939

1940 – 1941

administrator — Niechanowotoday: Niechanowo gm., Gniezno pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
⋄ St James the Apostle RC parish ⋄ Wrześniatoday: Września gm., Września pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.06.20]
RC deanery — acting („ad interim”)

1920 – 1939

dean — Command of the Corps District DOK No. VII Poznań, Polish Armed Forces — head of the Roman Catholic Pastoral Ministry; decommissioned on 31.03.1939

03.05.1922

RC military dean — Polish Armed Forces — commissioned, verified with seniority from 01.06.1919 and 8th place in the list of Roman Catholic military clergy, in the rank of colonel

01.07.1919

parish priest — 1st Greater Poland Rifle Division, Polish Armed Forces — on 10.12.1919 the division renamed the 14th Greater Poland Infantry Division

26.01.1919

chaplain — 1st Greater Poland Rifle Regiment, Polish Armed Forces — The Regiment was formed by DG No. 14 order of 19.01.1919; On 26.01.1919 was sworn in and received the banner at Freedom Square in Poznań

vicar — Poznańtoday: Poznań city pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
⋄ St Adalbert the Bishop and Martyr RC parish ⋄ Poznańtoday: Poznań city pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
RC deanery

1911 – 1919

vicar — Inowrocławtoday: Inowrocław gm., Inowrocław pov., Kuyavia‐Pomerania voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
⋄ St Nicholas the Bishop and Confessor RC parish (main parish)Inowrocławtoday: Inowrocław gm., Inowrocław pov., Kuyavia‐Pomerania voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
RC deanery

1910 – 1911

vicar — Gnieznotoday: Gniezno urban gm., Gniezno pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.12.18]
⋄ Holy Trinity RC parish ⋄ Gniezno Holy Trinitydeanery name
today: Gniezno urban gm., Gniezno pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland

more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.12.18]
RC deanery

till 1910

student — Gnieznotoday: Gniezno urban gm., Gniezno pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.12.18]
⋄ philosophy and theology, Archbishop's Practical Theological Seminary (Lat. Seminarium Clericorum Practicum)

from 1906

student — Poznańtoday: Poznań city pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
⋄ philosophy and theology, Archbishop's Theological Seminary (Collegium Leoninum)

others related
in death

SZLACHTAClick to display biography John, DADACZYŃSKIClick to display biography Roman Joseph, GORGOLEWSKIClick to display biography Joseph, SMOLIŃSKIClick to display biography Joseph Tomislav, TRZYBIŃSKIClick to display biography Valentine, WOJTYNIAKClick to display biography Ceslav

murder sites
camp 
(+ prisoner no)

KL Dachau (prisoner no: 28220Click to display biography): KL Dachau in German Bavaria, set up in 1933, became the main German Germ. Konzentrationslager (Eng. concentration camp) KL for Catholic priests and religious during World War II: On c. 09.11.1940, Reichsführer‐SS Heinrich Himmler, head of the SS, Gestapo and German police, as a result of the Vatican's intervention, decided to transfer all clergymen detained in various concentration camps to KL Dachau camp. The first major transports took place on 08.12.1940. In KL Dachau Germans held approx. 3,000 priests, including 1,800 Poles. The priests were forced to slave labor in the Germ. „Die Plantage” — the largest herb garden in Europe, managed by the genocidal SS, consisting of many greenhouses, laboratory buildings and arable land, where experiments with new natural medicines were conducted — for many hours, without breaks, without protective clothing, no food. They slaved in construction, e.g. of camp's crematorium. In the barracks ruled hunger, freezing cold in the winter and suffocating heat during the summer, especially acute in 1941‐1942. Prisoners suffered from bouts of illnesses, including tuberculosis. Many were victims of murderous „medical experiments” — in 11.1942 c. 20 were given phlegmon injections; in 07.1942 to 05.1944 c. 120 were used by for malaria experiments. More than 750 Polish clerics where murdered by the Germans, some brought to Schloss Hartheim euthanasia centre and murdered in gas chambers. At its peak KL Dachau concentration camps’ system had nearly 100 slave labour sub‐camps located throughout southern Germany and Austria. There were c. 32,000 documented deaths at the camp, and thousands perished without a trace. C. 10,000 of the 30,000 inmates were found sick at the time of liberation, on 29.04.1945, by the USA troops… (more on: www.kz-gedenkstaette-dachau.deClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2013.08.10]
, en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2016.05.30]
)

IL Lond: The Gestapo District Office in Poznań issued on 13.12.1939 executive instruction Ref. IIB No. 406/39 Tgb. No. 3045/39, ordering: „Based on the regulation of the Germ. Höherer SS‐ und Polizeiführer (Eng. Higher Commander of the SS and Police) [of the German province of Warthegau (Eng. Greater Poland)] of 12.11.1939 [SS‐Gruppenführer Wilhelm Koppe], apart from Poles and Jews, also Catholic clergy will be expelled. Action against this group of people should be carried out in such a way that internment and transport are separate […] C. 80% of Catholic clergy are expected to be expelled. The selection based on political threat posed. Internees cannot be placed in regular transit camps due to the possibility of international protest. Catholic clergy should be interned in men's monasteries and held there till mass transportation out”. And so in 1940‐1941, in a formerly Cistercian priory and monastery (today Salesian Institute) in Ląd on Warta river Germans set‐up a transit Germ. „Internierungslager” (Eng. „Internment camp”) for Polish priests and religious, from Włocławek, Gniezno, Warszawa, Poznań, Płock and Częstochowa dioceses and religious and monks from a number of congregations. Approx. 152 religious (70 till 03.04.1941 and 82 in 06‐28.10.1941) were held there prior to being sent to KL Dachau concentration camp. After the deportation, the Germans organized a training center for the German National Socialist youth wing, Germ. „Hitler‐Jugend” (Eng. „Hitler youth”), in the abbey. (more on: pl.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2013.08.10]
, yadda.icm.edu.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2016.03.14]
)

KL Posen: German Posen — Fort VII — camp founded in c. 10.10.1939 in Poznań till mid of 11.1939 operated formally as Germ. Konzentrationslager (Eng. concentration camp) KL Posen, and this term is used throughout the White Book, also later periods. It was first such a concentration camp set up by the Germans on Polish territory — in case of Greater Poland (Wielkopolska) directly incorporated into German Reich. In 10.1939 in KL Posen for the first time Germans used gas to murder civilian population, in particular patients of local psychiatric hospitals. From 11.1939 the camp operated as German political police Gestapo prison and transit camp (Germ. Übergangslager), prior to sending off to concentration camps, such as KL Dachau or KL Auschwitz. In 28.05.1941 the camp was rebranded as police jail and slave labour corrective camp (Germ. Arbeitserziehungslager). At its peak up to 7‐9 executions were carried in the camp per day, there were mass hangings of the prisoners and some of them were led out to be murdered elsewhere, outside of the camp. Altogether in KL Posen Germans exterminated approx. 20,000 inhabitants of Greater Poland (Wielkopolska) region, including many representatives of Polish intelligentsia, patients and staff of psychiatric hospitals and dozen or so Polish priests. Hundreds of priests were held there temporarily prior to transport to other concentration camps, mainly KL Dachau. From 03.1943 the camp had been transformed into an industrial complex (from 25.04.1944 — Telefunken factory manufacturing radios for submarines and aircrafts). (more on: www.wmn.poznan.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2019.02.02]
, en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2013.12.27]
)

06.10.1941 arrests (Warthegau): On 13.09.1941 Gaulaiter of German province Germ. Warthegau i.e. Germ. Reichsgau Wartheland, in German‐occupied Greater Poland (where German standard law was in force), Artur Greiser, implementing „Ohne Gott, ohne Religion, ohne Priesters und Sakramenten” — „without God, without religion, without priest and sacrament” — policy issued a decree formally dissolving Catholic Church and forming in its place a Roman Catholic German National Church in Germ. Warthegau, an organization subject to a German private law. The ordinance was issued backdated to 01.09.1939, i.e. the date of the German invasion of Poland, which sanctioned the later robbery of the property of the Catholic Church acting for the benefit of the Polish population by the Germans. All the contacts with Vatican were forbidden. All the religion congregations were also dissolved. On 06‐07.10.1941 mass arrests of Polish Catholic priests took place. All were herded into Konstantynów or Ląd on Warta river transit camps or KL Posen concentration camp (in this case, the detainees were first registered, photographed and examined in the infamous Poznań headquarters of the German political police, the Gestapo, in the former Soldier's House). On 30.10.1941 most of them were transported to KL Dachau concentration camp.

Ribbentrop‐Molotov: Genocidal Russian‐German alliance pact between Russian leader Joseph Stalin and German leader Adolf Hitler signed on 23.08.1939 in Moscow by respective foreign ministers, Mr. Vyacheslav Molotov for Russia and Joachim von Ribbentrop for Germany. The pact sanctioned and was the direct cause of joint Russian and German invasion of Poland and the outbreak of the World War II in 09.1939. In a political sense, the pact was an attempt to restore the status quo ante before 1914, with one exception, namely the „commercial” exchange of the so‐called „Kingdom of Poland”, which in 1914 was part of the Russian Empire, fore Eastern Galicia (today's western Ukraine), in 1914 belonging to the Austro‐Hungarian Empire. Galicia, including Lviv, was to be taken over by the Russians, the „Kingdom of Poland” — under the name of the General Governorate — Germany. The resultant „war was one of the greatest calamities and dramas of humanity in history, for two atheistic and anti‐Christian ideologies — national and international socialism — rejected God and His fifth Decalogue commandment: Thou shall not kill!” (Abp Stanislav Gądecki, 01.09.2019). The decisions taken — backed up by the betrayal of the formal allies of Poland, France and Germany, which on 12.09.1939, at a joint conference in Abbeville, decided not to provide aid to attacked Poland and not to take military action against Germany (a clear breach of treaty obligations with Poland) — were on 28.09.1939 slightly altered and made more precise when a treaty on „German‐Russian boundaries and friendship” was agreed by the same murderous signatories. One of its findings was establishment of spheres of influence in Central and Eastern Europe and in consequence IV partition of Poland. In one of its secret annexes agreed, that: „the Signatories will not tolerate on its respective territories any Polish propaganda that affects the territory of the other Side. On their respective territories they will suppress all such propaganda and inform each other of the measures taken to accomplish it”. The agreements resulted in a series of meeting between two genocidal organization representing both sides — German Gestapo and Russian NKVD when coordination of efforts to exterminate Polish intelligentsia and Polish leading classes (in Germany called «Intelligenzaktion», in Russia took the form of Katyń massacres) where discussed. Resulted in deaths of hundreds of thousands of Polish intelligentsia, including thousands of priests presented here, and tens of millions of ordinary people,. The results of this Russian‐German pact lasted till 1989 and are still in evidence even today. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2015.09.30]
)

Pius XI's encyclicals: Facing the creation of two totalitarian systems in Europe, which seemed to compete with each other, though there were more similarities than contradictions between them, Pope Pius XI issued in 03.1937 (within 5 days) two encyclicals. In the „Mit brennender Sorge” (Eng. „With Burning Concern”) published on 14.03.1938, condemned the national socialism prevailing in Germany. The Pope wrote: „Whoever, following the old Germanic‐pre‐Christian beliefs, puts various impersonal fate in the place of a personal God, denies the wisdom of God and Providence […], whoever exalts earthly values: race or nation, or state, or state system, representatives of state power or other fundamental values of human society, […] and makes them the highest standard of all values, including religious ones, and idolizes them, this one […] is far from true faith in God and from a worldview corresponding to such faith”. On 19.03.1937, published „Divini Redemptoris” (Eng. „Divine Redeemer”), in which criticized Russian communism, dialectical materialism and the class struggle theory. The Pope wrote: „Communism deprives man of freedom, and therefore the spiritual basis of all life norms. It deprives the human person of all his dignity and any moral support with which he could resist the onslaught of blind passions […] This is the new gospel that Bolshevik and godless communism preaches as a message of salvation and redemption of humanity”… Pius XI demanded that the established human law be subjected to the natural law of God , recommended the implementation of the ideal of a Christian state and society, and called on Catholics to resist. Two years later, National Socialist Germany and Communist Russia came together and started World War II. (more on: www.vatican.vaClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2023.05.28]
, www.vatican.vaClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2023.05.28]
)

Polish‐Russian war of 1919‐1921: War for independence of Poland and its borders. Poland regained independence in 1918 but had to fight for its borders with former imperial powers, in particular Russia. Russia planned to incite Bolshevik‐like revolutions in the Western Europe and thus invaded Poland. Russian invaders were defeated in 08.1920 in a battle called Warsaw battle („Vistula river miracle”, one of the 10 most important battles in history, according to some historians). Thanks to this victory Poland recaptured part of the lands lost during partitions of Poland in XVIII century, and Europe was saved from the genocidal Communism. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2014.12.20]
)

Polish‐Ukrainian war of 1918‐1919: One of the wars for borders of the newly reborn Poland. At the end of 1918 on the former Austro‐Hungarian empire’s territory, based on the Ukrainian military units of the former Austro‐Hungarian army, Ukrainians waged war against Poland. In particular attempted to create foundation of an independent state and attacked Lviv. Thanks to heroic stance of Lviv inhabitants, in particular young generation of Poles — called since then Lviv eaglets — the city was recaptured by Poles and for a number of months successfully defended against furious Ukrainian attacks. In 1919 Poland — its newly created army — pushed Ukrainian forces far to the east and south, regaining control over its territory. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2017.05.20]
)

Greater Poland Uprising: Military insurrection of Poles of former German Germ. Posen Provinz (Eng. Poznań province) launched against German Reich in 1918‐1919 — after the abdication on 09.11.1918 of the German Emperor William II Hohenzollern; after the armistice between the Allies and Germany signed on 11.1.1918 in the HQ wagon in Compiègne, the headquarters of Marshal of France Ferdinand Foch — which de facto meant the end of World War I — against the German Weimar Republic, established on the ruins of the German Empire, aiming to incorporate lands captured by Prussia during partitions of Poland in XVIII century into Poland, reborn in 1918. Started on 27.12.1918 in Poznań and ended on 16.02.1919 with the armistice in Trier (which included provisions ordering the Germans to stop their actions against Poland), which meant a de facto Polish victory. Many Polish priests took part in the Uprising, both as chaplains of the insurgents units and members and leaders of the Polish agencies and councils set up in the areas covered by the Uprising. In 1939 after German invasion of Poland and start of the World War II those priests were particularly persecuted by the Germans and majority of them were murdered. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2016.08.14]
)

sources

personal:
www.wtg-gniazdo.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2012.11.23]
, www.archiwum.archidiecezja.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2013.08.10]
, pl.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2015.09.30]
, arolsen-archives.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2019.10.13]
, www.ipgs.usClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2012.11.23]
, lbc.leszno.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2023.12.15]
, kpbc.umk.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2023.12.15]
, www.wbc.poznan.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2023.12.15]

bibliographical:
Martyrology of the Polish Roman Catholic clergy under nazi occupation in 1939‐1945”, Victor Jacewicz, John Woś, vol. I‐V, Warsaw Theological Academy, 1977‐1981
original images:
www.audiovis.nac.gov.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2013.08.10]
, www.audiovis.nac.gov.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2015.09.30]
, www.audiovis.nac.gov.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2015.09.30]
, audiovis.nac.gov.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2016.08.14]
, audiovis.nac.gov.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2016.08.14]
, www.wbc.poznan.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2023.12.15]
, www.facebook.comClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2021.12.19]
, www.wtg-gniazdo.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2012.11.23]
, www.katedrapolowa.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2014.01.16]

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