• OUR LADY of CZĘSTOCHOWA: st Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionOUR LADY of CZĘSTOCHOWA
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
link to OUR LADY of PERPETUAL HELP in SŁOMCZYN infoSITE LOGO

Roman Catholic
St Sigismund parish
05-507 Słomczyn
85 Wiślana Str.
Konstancin deanery
Warsaw archdiocese, Poland

  • St SIGISMUND: St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
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Martyrology of the clergy — Poland

XX century (1914 – 1989)

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  • PRĄDZYŃSKI Joseph, source: baltia.bloog.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPRĄDZYŃSKI Joseph
    source: baltia.bloog.pl
    own collection
  • PRĄDZYŃSKI Joseph, source: www.polska1918-89.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPRĄDZYŃSKI Joseph
    source: www.polska1918-89.pl
    own collection
  • PRĄDZYŃSKI Joseph, source: www.wtg-gniazdo.org, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPRĄDZYŃSKI Joseph
    source: www.wtg-gniazdo.org
    own collection
  • PRĄDZYŃSKI Joseph; source: „Bibliography of St Adalbert Bookshop publications 1895—1969. On 75th anniversary of the publishing house”, Boleslaus Żynda (ed.), Poznań-Warszawa-Lublin 1970; thanks to Mr Andrew Malinski's kindness (private correspondence, 03.03.2021) (www.wbc.poznan.pl), own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPRĄDZYŃSKI Joseph
    source: „Bibliography of St Adalbert Bookshop publications 1895—1969. On 75th anniversary of the publishing house”, Boleslaus Żynda (ed.), Poznań-Warszawa-Lublin 1970; thanks to Mr Andrew Malinski's kindness (private correspondence, 03.03.2021) (www.wbc.poznan.pl)
    own collection
  • PRĄDZYŃSKI Joseph, source: www.prawy.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPRĄDZYŃSKI Joseph
    source: www.prawy.pl
    own collection
  • PRĄDZYŃSKI Joseph - Before 1928, source: senat.edu.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPRĄDZYŃSKI Joseph
    Before 1928
    source: senat.edu.pl
    own collection
  • PRĄDZYŃSKI Joseph - 1920, source: pl.wikipedia.org, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPRĄDZYŃSKI Joseph
    1920
    source: pl.wikipedia.org
    own collection
  • PRĄDZYŃSKI Joseph, source: baltia.bloog.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPRĄDZYŃSKI Joseph
    source: baltia.bloog.pl
    own collection

surname

PRĄDZYŃSKI

forename(s)

Joseph (pl. Józef)

  • PRĄDZYŃSKI Joseph - Commemorative plaque, parish - fara, Poznań, source: www.senat.edu.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPRĄDZYŃSKI Joseph
    Commemorative plaque, parish - fara, Poznań
    source: www.senat.edu.pl
    own collection
  • PRĄDZYŃSKI Joseph - Poznań corporants-academics commemorative plaque, Freedom Square, Poznań, source: baltia.bloog.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPRĄDZYŃSKI Joseph
    Poznań corporants-academics commemorative plaque, Freedom Square, Poznań
    source: baltia.bloog.pl
    own collection
  • PRĄDZYŃSKI Joseph - Commemorative plaque, St Adalbert Bookshop, Poznań; source: „Bibliography of St Adalbert Bookshop publications 1895—1969. On 75th anniversary of the publishing house”, Boleslaus Żynda (ed.), Poznań-Warszawa-Lublin 1970; thanks to Mr Andrew Malinski's kindness (private correspondence, 03.03.2021), own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPRĄDZYŃSKI Joseph
    Commemorative plaque, St Adalbert Bookshop, Poznań
    source: „Bibliography of St Adalbert Bookshop publications 1895—1969. On 75th anniversary of the publishing house”, Boleslaus Żynda (ed.), Poznań-Warszawa-Lublin 1970; thanks to Mr Andrew Malinski's kindness (private correspondence, 03.03.2021)
    own collection
  • PRĄDZYŃSKI Joseph - Commemorative plaque, Underground Resistance State monument, Poznań, source: own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPRĄDZYŃSKI Joseph
    Commemorative plaque, Underground Resistance State monument, Poznań
    source: own collection
  • PRĄDZYŃSKI Joseph - Underground Resistance State monument, Poznań, source: own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPRĄDZYŃSKI Joseph
    Underground Resistance State monument, Poznań
    source: own collection
  • PRĄDZYŃSKI Joseph - Underground Resistance State monument, Poznań, source: own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPRĄDZYŃSKI Joseph
    Underground Resistance State monument, Poznań
    source: own collection
  • PRĄDZYŃSKI Joseph - Commemorative plaque, L to S, Polish Senate building, Warszawa, source: www.senat.edu.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPRĄDZYŃSKI Joseph
    Commemorative plaque, L to S, Polish Senate building, Warszawa
    source: www.senat.edu.pl
    own collection
  • PRĄDZYŃSKI Joseph - Altar, Martyrs' Chapel, St Peter and St Paul cathedral, Poznań, source: own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPRĄDZYŃSKI Joseph
    Altar, Martyrs' Chapel, St Peter and St Paul cathedral, Poznań
    source: own collection
  • PRĄDZYŃSKI Joseph - Commemorative plague, altar, Martyrs' Chapel, St Peter and St Paul cathedral, Poznań, source: own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPRĄDZYŃSKI Joseph
    Commemorative plague, altar, Martyrs' Chapel, St Peter and St Paul cathedral, Poznań
    source: own collection

function

diocesan priest

creed

Latin (Roman Catholic) Church RCmore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2014.09.21]

diocese / province

Gniezno and Poznań archdiocese (aeque principaliter)more on
www.archpoznan.pl
[access: 2012.11.23]

Military Ordinariate of Polandmore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2014.12.20]

honorary titles

prelatemore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2014.11.14]

protonotary apostolicmore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2014.11.22]

War Order of Virtuti Militarimore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2019.10.13]

Minor Canonmore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2014.11.14]
(Poznań collegiate)

date and place
of death

20.05.1942

TA HartheimSchloss Hartheim „euthanasia” center
today: Alkoven, Eferding dist., Salzburg state, Austria

more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2022.07.18]

alt. dates and places
of death

27.06.1942 (KL Dachau „death certificate” date)

details of death

In 1901, during partition times when Poland did not exist, while studying till 1898 in gymnasium in Chełmno, tried by Germans for participation in a clandestine self–education Polish student organisation Philomats' Society.

In Toruń sentenced to 6 weeks and jailed in Bydgoszcz prison.

In 1918 became a member of the Executive Department of the Polish Central Civic Committee CKO, an organization founded in 1916 as a clandestine Inter–Party Committee.

As its delegate, on 10.11.1918, talked with Joseph Piłsudski, returning to the prison in Magdeburg, about the possibility of an uprising in the Prussian–rule part of Poland.

When on 14.11.1918, the CKO changed name to the Supreme People's Council NRL, became its member.

Was responsible for the preparation of the Polish District Seym in Poznań, a unicameral parliament which met on 03‑05.12.1918 at the „Apollo”.

cinema in Poznań.

The Seym recognized the NRL as a legal Polish state authority and expressed wish to create a united Polish state with access to the sea.

From then on was responsible for the Press and Propaganda Department of NRL (or was the head of its Justice Department).

In this role participated in the Greater Poland Uprising of 1918‑1919, and on 26.06.1919 became the Dean General of the Polish Army in the former Prussian partition, in the rank of brigadier–general.

Held this position till 11.1919.

After German and Russian invasion of Poland in 09.1939 and start of the World War II, after start of German occupation, co‑founder of clandestine „Fatherland” organization.

From 01.1940 organiser of the Polish government in exile's clandestine Government Delegation for Poland in the lands incorporated into German Reich.

In the winter of 1940 dragged to a Poznań–Główna resettlement site where Poles were being forcibly deported to General Governorate from, but released.

Arrested again on 03.05.1941.

Interrogated in Soldiers' House Gestapo HQ in Poznań and jailed in KL Posen (Fort VII) concentration camp.

From there on 26.09.1941 transported to KL Dachau concentration camp.

Finally totally exhausted taken in a so‑called „invalid transport” to TA Hartheim Euthanasia Center, where was murdered in a gas chamber.

cause of death

extermination: gassing in a gas chamber

perpetrators

Germans

date and place
of birth

02.03.1877

Żołędowotoday: Osielsko gm., Bydgoszcz pov., Kuyavia–Pomerania voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.12.18]

presbyter (holy orders)
ordination

15.12.1901 (Gnieznotoday: Gniezno urban gm., Gniezno pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.12.18]
)

positions held

1917 – 1940

curator — Poznańtoday: Poznań city pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
⋄ Collegiate Chapter ⋄ St Mary Magdalene RC collegiate church ⋄ Poznańtoday: Poznań city pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
RC deanery

c. 1931 – c. 1939

membership — Poznańtoday: Poznań city pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
Lat. „Consilium a Vigilantiae” (Eng. „Committee on Morals”), Metropolitan Curia

1929 – 1938

councillor — Poznańtoday: Poznań city pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
⋄ City Council

1920 – 1934

General secretary — Catholic League

1925 – 1934

president — „Unitas” Union of Priests

1917 – 1925

General secretary — „Unitas” Union of Priests

1926 – 1927

senator — Senate of the 1st Term of the Second Polish Republic — member of Education Committee

1922 – 1926

deputy senator — Senate of the 1st Term of the Second Polish Republic

priest — Poznańtoday: Poznań city pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
⋄ Adam Mickiewicz University (from 1955), University of Poland (1945‑1955, 1920‑1939), Piast University (1919‑1920), Royal Academy (1903‑1918) — academic

lecturer — Poznańtoday: Poznań city pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
⋄ Adam Mickiewicz University (from 1955), University of Poland (1945‑1955, 1920‑1939), Piast University (1919‑1920), Royal Academy (1903‑1918)

1912 – 1917

parish priest — Gnieznotoday: Gniezno urban gm., Gniezno pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.12.18]
⋄ St Michael the Archangel RC parish ⋄ Trzemesznotoday: Trzemeszno gm., Gniezno pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
RC deanery

1902 – 1911

vicar — Strzelnotoday: Strzelno gm., Mogilno pov., Kuyavia–Pomerania voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
⋄ Holy Trinity RC parish ⋄ Kruszwicatoday: Kruszwica gm., Inowrocław pov., Kuyavia–Pomerania voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
RC deanery

1901 – 1902

vicar — Potulicetoday: Wągrowiec gm., Wągrowiec pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
⋄ St Catherine the Virgin and Martyr RC parish ⋄ Rogoźnotoday: Rogoźno gm., Oborniki pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
RC deanery

till 1901

student — Gnieznotoday: Gniezno urban gm., Gniezno pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.12.18]
⋄ philosophy and theology, Archbishop's Practical Theological Seminary (Lat. Seminarium Clericorum Practicum)

from 1898

student — Poznańtoday: Poznań city pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
⋄ philosophy and theology, Archbishop's Theological Seminary (Collegium Leoninum)

from 1917

membership — Friends of Sciences Society

others related
in death

PALUCHClick to display biography Ignatius, PANKIEWICZClick to display biography James (Fr Anastasius), PISZCZYGŁOWAClick to display biography Bartholomew, PISZCZYGŁOWAClick to display biography Stanislav, PLACEKClick to display biography Bronislav, POJDAClick to display biography Adolph, POKRZYWNICKIClick to display biography Alexander Felix, POLEWICZClick to display biography Marian, POMIANClick to display biography Sigismund, POTAPSKIClick to display biography Francis, PRYLIŃSKIClick to display biography Lester (Fr Casimir), PSONKAClick to display biography Francis, PYTLAWSKIClick to display biography Roman, RAWICKIClick to display biography Francis, ROGOZIŃSKIClick to display biography Andrew, RÓŻAŃSKIClick to display biography Zdislav

murder sites
camp 
(+ prisoner no)

TA Hartheim: In Germ. Tötungsanstalt TA Hartheim (Eng. Killing/Euthanasia Center), in Schloss Hartheim castle in Alkoven village in Upper Austria, belonging to KL Mauthausen‑Gusen complex of concentration camps, as part of «Aktion T4», the victims — underdeveloped mentally — were murdered by Germans in gas chambers. In 04.1941 Germans expanded the program to include prisoners held in concentration camps. Most if not all religious from KL Dachau were taken to Hartheim in so called „transports of invalids” (denoted as „Aktion 14 f 13”) — prisoners sick and according to German standards „unable to work” — from KL Dachau concentration camp (initially under the guise of a transfer to a „better” camp).
Note: The dates of death of victims murdered in Schloss Hartheim indicated in the „White Book” are the dates of deportations from the last concentration camp the victims where held in. The real dates of death are unknown — apart from c. 49 priests whose names were included in the „transports of invalids”, but who did arrive at TA Hartheim. Prob. perished on the day of transport, somewhere between KL Dachau and Munich, and their bodies were thrown out of the transport and cremated in Munich. The investigation conducted by Polish Institute of National Remembrance IPN concluded, that the other victims were murdered immediately upon arrival in Schloss Hartheim, bodies cremated and the ashes spread over local fields and into Danube river. In order to hide details of the genocide Germans falsified both dates of death (for instance those entered into KL Dachau concentration camp books, presented in „White Book” as alternative dates of death) and their causes. (more on: ipn.gov.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2019.05.30]
, en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2019.05.30]
)

«Aktion T4»: German euthanasia program, systematic murder of people mentally retarded, chronically, mentally and neurologically ill — „elimination of live not worth living” (Germ. „Vernichtung von lebensunwertem Leben”). At a peak, in 1940‑1941, c. 70,000 people were murdered, including patients of psychiatric hospitals in German occupied Poland. From 04.1941 also mentally ill and „disabled” (i.e. unable to work) prisoners held in German concentration camps were included in the program — denoted then as „Aktion 14 f 13”. C. 20,000 inmates were then murdered, including Polish Catholic priests held in KL Dachau concentration camp, who were murdered in Hartheim gas chambers. The other „regional extension” of «Aktion T4» was „Aktion Brandt” program during which Germans murdered chronically ill patients in order to make space for wounded soldiers. It is estimated that at least 30,000 were murdered in this program. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2014.10.31]
)

KL Dachau (prisoner no: 27722Click to display biography): KL Dachau in German Bavaria, set up in 1933, became the main German Germ. Konzentrationslager (Eng. concentration camp) KL for Catholic priests and religious during World War II: On c. 09.11.1940, Reichsführer‑SS Heinrich Himmler, head of the SS, Gestapo and German police, as a result of the Vatican's intervention, decided to transfer all clergymen detained in various concentration camps to KL Dachau camp. The first major transports took place on 08.12.1940. In KL Dachau Germans held approx. 3,000 priests, including 1,800 Poles. The priests were forced to slave labor in the Germ. „Die Plantage” — the largest herb garden in Europe, managed by the genocidal SS, consisting of many greenhouses, laboratory buildings and arable land, where experiments with new natural medicines were conducted — for many hours, without breaks, without protective clothing, no food. They slaved in construction, e.g. of camp's crematorium. In the barracks ruled hunger, freezing cold in the winter and suffocating heat during the summer, especially acute in 1941‑1942. Prisoners suffered from bouts of illnesses, including tuberculosis. Many were victims of murderous „medical experiments” — in 11.1942 c. 20 were given phlegmon injections; in 07.1942 to 05.1944 c. 120 were used by for malaria experiments. More than 750 Polish clerics where murdered by the Germans, some brought to Schloss Hartheim euthanasia centre and murdered in gas chambers. At its peak KL Dachau concentration camps’ system had nearly 100 slave labour sub‑camps located throughout southern Germany and Austria. There were c. 32,000 documented deaths at the camp, and thousands perished without a trace. C. 10,000 of the 30,000 inmates were found sick at the time of liberation, on 29.04.1945, by the USA troops… (more on: www.kz-gedenkstaette-dachau.deClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2013.08.10]
, en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2016.05.30]
)

KL Posen: German Posen — Fort VII — camp founded in c. 10.10.1939 in Poznań till mid of 11.1939 operated formally as Germ. Konzentrationslager (Eng. concentration camp) KL Posen, and this term is used throughout the White Book, also later periods. It was first such a concentration camp set up by the Germans on Polish territory — in case of Greater Poland (Wielkopolska) directly incorporated into German Reich. In 10.1939 in KL Posen for the first time Germans used gas to murder civilian population, in particular patients of local psychiatric hospitals. From 11.1939 the camp operated as German political police Gestapo prison and transit camp (Germ. Übergangslager), prior to sending off to concentration camps, such as KL Dachau or KL Auschwitz. In 28.05.1941 the camp was rebranded as police jail and slave labour corrective camp (Germ. Arbeitserziehungslager). At its peak up to 7‑9 executions were carried in the camp per day, there were mass hangings of the prisoners and some of them were led out to be murdered elsewhere, outside of the camp. Altogether in KL Posen Germans exterminated approx. 20,000 inhabitants of Greater Poland (Wielkopolska) region, including many representatives of Polish intelligentsia, patients and staff of psychiatric hospitals and dozen or so Polish priests. Hundreds of priests were held there temporarily prior to transport to other concentration camps, mainly KL Dachau. From 03.1943 the camp had been transformed into an industrial complex (from 25.04.1944 — Telefunken factory manufacturing radios for submarines and aircrafts). (more on: www.wmn.poznan.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2019.02.02]
, en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2013.12.27]
)

Poznań (Soldiers's House): From 12.09.1939 a Poznań prison for Poles, mainly those suspected of clandestine resistance activities, run by German Gestapo. Famed torture and interrogation centre. (more on: pl.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2015.09.30]
)

General Governorate: A separate administrative territorial region set up by the Germans in 1939 after defeat of Poland, which included German‑occupied part of Polish territory that was not directly incorporate into German state. Created as the result of the Ribbentrop‑Molotov Pact, in a political sense, was to recreate the German idea of 1915 (after the defeat of the Russians in the Battle of Gorlice in 05.1915 during World War I) of establishing a Polish enclave within Germany (also called the General Governorate at that time). It was run by the Germans till 1945 and final Russian offensive, and was a part of so‑called Big Germany — Grossdeutschland. Till 31.07.1940 formally known as Germ. Generalgouvernement für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete (Eng. General Governorate for occupied Polish territories) — later as simply Germ. Generalgouvernement (Eng. General Governorate). From 07.1941 expanded to include district Galicia. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2013.12.04]
)

Deportations from niem. Reichsgau Wartheland: After defeating Poland in 1939 a new province was created in Germany, Germ. Reichsgau Wartheland (Eng. Warta German Region) and defined as „indigenous German”, although in 1939 Germans constituted less than 10% of the total population there. In the same 1939, the national‑socialist leader of Germany, Adolf Hitler, announced the need to move Germans from the East to the Reich, mainly to the Germ. Reichsgau Wartheland. Another German leader, Robert Ley, stated, „In 50 years there will be a thriving German country where there will be neither a Pole nor a Jew! If someone asks me where they will be, I will answer: I don't know. In Palestine or in the Sahara desert, I don't care. But German people will live here!” Deportations began. By the end of 1939, c. 80 railway transports were sent to the General Governorate — a total of 87,883 people, mainly Poles and Jews. By 03.1941, over 280,000 people had been displaced. The deported had the right to take with them 12‑30 kg per person. They were given half an hour to pack. Over 60,000 Germans from Estonia, Latvia, Finland, later from other regions, were brought in to replace them. In 1941, c. 70,000 remaining Jewsa were displaced. (more on: pl.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2022.11.20]
)

«Intelligenzaktion»: (Eng. „Action Intelligentsia”) — extermination program of Polish elites, mainly intelligentsia, executed by the Germans right from the start of the occupation in 09.1939 till around 05.1940, mainly on the lands directly incorporated into Germany but also in the so‑called General Governorate where it was called «AB‑aktion». During the first phase right after start of German occupation of Poland implemented as Germ. Unternehmen „Tannenberg” (Eng. „Tannenberg operation”) — plan based on proscription lists of Poles worked out by (Germ. Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen), regarded by Germans as specially dangerous to the German Reich. List contained names of c. 61,000 Poles. Altogether during this genocide Germans methodically murdered c. 50,000 teachers, priests, landowners, social and political activists and retired military. Further 50,000 were sent to concentration camps where most of them perished. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2014.10.04]
)

Ribbentrop‑Molotov: Genocidal Russian‑German alliance pact between Russian leader Joseph Stalin and German leader Adolf Hitler signed on 23.08.1939 in Moscow by respective foreign ministers, Mr. Vyacheslav Molotov for Russia and Joachim von Ribbentrop for Germany. The pact sanctioned and was the direct cause of joint Russian and German invasion of Poland and the outbreak of the World War II in 09.1939. In a political sense, the pact was an attempt to restore the status quo ante before 1914, with one exception, namely the „commercial” exchange of the so‑called „Kingdom of Poland”, which in 1914 was part of the Russian Empire, fore Eastern Galicia (today's western Ukraine), in 1914 belonging to the Austro‑Hungarian Empire. Galicia, including Lviv, was to be taken over by the Russians, the „Kingdom of Poland” — under the name of the General Governorate — Germany. The resultant „war was one of the greatest calamities and dramas of humanity in history, for two atheistic and anti‑Christian ideologies — national and international socialism — rejected God and His fifth Decalogue commandment: Thou shall not kill!” (Abp Stanislav Gądecki, 01.09.2019). The decisions taken — backed up by the betrayal of the formal allies of Poland, France and Germany, which on 12.09.1939, at a joint conference in Abbeville, decided not to provide aid to attacked Poland and not to take military action against Germany (a clear breach of treaty obligations with Poland) — were on 28.09.1939 slightly altered and made more precise when a treaty on „German‑Russian boundaries and friendship” was agreed by the same murderous signatories. One of its findings was establishment of spheres of influence in Central and Eastern Europe and in consequence IV partition of Poland. In one of its secret annexes agreed, that: „the Signatories will not tolerate on its respective territories any Polish propaganda that affects the territory of the other Side. On their respective territories they will suppress all such propaganda and inform each other of the measures taken to accomplish it”. The agreements resulted in a series of meeting between two genocidal organization representing both sides — German Gestapo and Russian NKVD when coordination of efforts to exterminate Polish intelligentsia and Polish leading classes (in Germany called «Intelligenzaktion», in Russia took the form of Katyń massacres) where discussed. Resulted in deaths of hundreds of thousands of Polish intelligentsia, including thousands of priests presented here, and tens of millions of ordinary people,. The results of this Russian‑German pact lasted till 1989 and are still in evidence even today. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2015.09.30]
)

Pius XI's encyclicals: Facing the creation of two totalitarian systems in Europe, which seemed to compete with each other, though there were more similarities than contradictions between them, Pope Pius XI issued in 03.1937 (within 5 days) two encyclicals. In the „Mit brennender Sorge” (Eng. „With Burning Concern”) published on 14.03.1938, condemned the national socialism prevailing in Germany. The Pope wrote: „Whoever, following the old Germanic‑pre‑Christian beliefs, puts various impersonal fate in the place of a personal God, denies the wisdom of God and Providence […], whoever exalts earthly values: race or nation, or state, or state system, representatives of state power or other fundamental values of human society, […] and makes them the highest standard of all values, including religious ones, and idolizes them, this one […] is far from true faith in God and from a worldview corresponding to such faith”. On 19.03.1937, published „Divini Redemptoris” (Eng. „Divine Redeemer”), in which criticized Russian communism, dialectical materialism and the class struggle theory. The Pope wrote: „Communism deprives man of freedom, and therefore the spiritual basis of all life norms. It deprives the human person of all his dignity and any moral support with which he could resist the onslaught of blind passions […] This is the new gospel that Bolshevik and godless communism preaches as a message of salvation and redemption of humanity”… Pius XI demanded that the established human law be subjected to the natural law of God , recommended the implementation of the ideal of a Christian state and society, and called on Catholics to resist. Two years later, National Socialist Germany and Communist Russia came together and started World War II. (more on: www.vatican.vaClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2023.05.28]
, www.vatican.vaClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2023.05.28]
)

Greater Poland Uprising: Military insurrection of Poles of former German Germ. Posen Provinz (Eng. Poznań province) launched against German Reich in 1918‑1919 — after the abdication on 09.11.1918 of the German Emperor William II Hohenzollern; after the armistice between the Allies and Germany signed on 11.1.1918 in the HQ wagon in Compiègne, the headquarters of Marshal of France Ferdinand Foch — which de facto meant the end of World War I — against the German Weimar Republic, established on the ruins of the German Empire, aiming to incorporate lands captured by Prussia during partitions of Poland in XVIII century into Poland, reborn in 1918. Started on 27.12.1918 in Poznań and ended on 16.02.1919 with the armistice in Trier (which included provisions ordering the Germans to stop their actions against Poland), which meant a de facto Polish victory. Many Polish priests took part in the Uprising, both as chaplains of the insurgents units and members and leaders of the Polish agencies and councils set up in the areas covered by the Uprising. In 1939 after German invasion of Poland and start of the World War II those priests were particularly persecuted by the Germans and majority of them were murdered. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2016.08.14]
)

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