• OUR LADY of CZĘSTOCHOWA: st Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionOUR LADY of CZĘSTOCHOWA
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
link to OUR LADY of PERPETUAL HELP in SŁOMCZYN infoSITE LOGO

Roman Catholic
St Sigismund parish
05-507 Słomczyn
85 Wiślana Str.
Konstancin deanery
Warsaw archdiocese, Poland

  • St SIGISMUND: St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
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Martyrology of the clergy — Poland

XX century (1914 – 1989)

personal data

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  • LUDWICZAK Anthony John, source: www.audiovis.nac.gov.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOLUDWICZAK Anthony John
    source: www.audiovis.nac.gov.pl
    own collection
  • LUDWICZAK Anthony John - 1936, Dalki, source: cyra.wblogu.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOLUDWICZAK Anthony John
    1936, Dalki
    source: cyra.wblogu.pl
    own collection
  • LUDWICZAK Anthony John, source: centrum.diecezja.legnica.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOLUDWICZAK Anthony John
    source: centrum.diecezja.legnica.pl
    own collection
  • LUDWICZAK Anthony John, source: www.audiovis.nac.gov.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOLUDWICZAK Anthony John
    source: www.audiovis.nac.gov.pl
    own collection

surname

LUDWICZAK

forename(s)

Anthony John (pl. Antoni Jan)

  • LUDWICZAK Anthony John - Commemorative plaque, Gniezno, source: pl.wikipedia.org, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOLUDWICZAK Anthony John
    Commemorative plaque, Gniezno
    source: pl.wikipedia.org
    own collection
  • LUDWICZAK Anthony John - Commemorative plaque, St Peter and St Paul church, Kostrzyń, source: www.parafia-kostrzyn.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOLUDWICZAK Anthony John
    Commemorative plaque, St Peter and St Paul church, Kostrzyń
    source: www.parafia-kostrzyn.pl
    own collection
  • LUDWICZAK Anthony John - Commemorative plaque, Chełmce, source: www.wtg-gniazdo.org, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOLUDWICZAK Anthony John
    Commemorative plaque, Chełmce
    source: www.wtg-gniazdo.org
    own collection
  • LUDWICZAK Anthony John - Commemorative plaque, Lubasz, source: www.wtg-gniazdo.org, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOLUDWICZAK Anthony John
    Commemorative plaque, Lubasz
    source: www.wtg-gniazdo.org
    own collection
  • LUDWICZAK Anthony John - Commemorative plaque, Underground Resistance State monument, Poznań, source: own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOLUDWICZAK Anthony John
    Commemorative plaque, Underground Resistance State monument, Poznań
    source: own collection
  • LUDWICZAK Anthony John - Underground Resistance State monument, Poznań, source: own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOLUDWICZAK Anthony John
    Underground Resistance State monument, Poznań
    source: own collection
  • LUDWICZAK Anthony John - Underground Resistance State monument, Poznań, source: own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOLUDWICZAK Anthony John
    Underground Resistance State monument, Poznań
    source: own collection
  • LUDWICZAK Anthony John - Commemorative plaque, cathedral, Gniezno; source: thanks to Mr Jerzy Andrzejewski's kindness, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOLUDWICZAK Anthony John
    Commemorative plaque, cathedral, Gniezno
    source: thanks to Mr Jerzy Andrzejewski's kindness
    own collection
  • LUDWICZAK Anthony John - Commemorative plaque, cathedral, Gniezno; source: thanks to Mr Jerzy Andrzejewski's kindness, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOLUDWICZAK Anthony John
    Commemorative plaque, cathedral, Gniezno
    source: thanks to Mr Jerzy Andrzejewski's kindness
    own collection
  • LUDWICZAK Anthony John - Commemorative plaque, Polish Parliament building, Warsaw, source: commons.wikimedia.org, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOLUDWICZAK Anthony John
    Commemorative plaque, Polish Parliament building, Warsaw
    source: commons.wikimedia.org
    own collection

function

diocesan priest

creed

Latin (Roman Catholic) Church RCmore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2014.09.21]

diocese / province

Gniezno and Poznań archdiocese (aeque principaliter)more on
www.archpoznan.pl
[access: 2012.11.23]

Military Ordinariate of Polandmore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2014.12.20]

honorary titles

Cross of Independencemore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2019.02.02]

Officer's Cross „Polonia Restitutamore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2019.04.16]

Gold „Cross of Meritmore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2019.04.16]

Silver Academic Laurel

date and place
of death

18.05.1942

TA HartheimSchloss Hartheim „euthanasia” center
today: Alkoven, Eferding dist., Salzburg state, Austria

more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2022.07.18]

alt. dates and places
of death

17.06.1942 (KL Dachau „death certificate” date)

details of death

During Polish children school strike in German–ruled part of Poland leader of children protest in Lubasz school in 1906‐1907.

Organiser of preparations to the Greater Poland Uprising (1918‐1919) in Pniewy — founder of the Polish City Guard, insurgents' unit, Red Cross unit and nurses group, insurgents' chaplain, participant of Polish District Parliament in 12.1918 in Poznań.

Leader of Warmia Plebiscite Committee in 1920‐1922 during decision time about the fate of Warmia region.

After German and Russian invasion of Poland in 09.1939 and start of the World War II, after start of German occupation, arrested by the Germans on 02.11.1939.

Jailed in Inowrocław prison.

On 05.11.1939 moved to Świecie prison (in f. psychiatric hospital) and next on 08.11.1939 to Górna Grupa transit camp.

On 05.02.1940 transported to ZL Neufahrwasser in Gdańsk transit camp and from there on 08.02.1940 to KL Stutthof concentration camp.

Next on 09‐10.04.1940 moved to KL Sachsenhausen concentration camp.

Finally on 14.12.1940 transported to KL Dachau concentration camp and from there — totally exhausted — in a so‐called Germ. „Invalidentransport” (Eng. „Invalids' transport”) to TA Hartheim Euthanasia Center where murdered in a gas chamber.

cause of death

extermination: gassing in a gas chamber

perpetrators

Germans

date and place
of birth

16.05.1878

Kostrzyntoday: Kostrzyn gm., Poznań pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.12.19]

presbyter (holy orders)
ordination

13.12.1903 (Gnieznotoday: Gniezno urban gm., Gniezno pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.12.18]
)

positions held

1938 – 1939

parish priest — Chełmcetoday: Kruszwica gm., Inowrocław pov., Kuyavia‐Pomerania voiv., Poland
more on
pl.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
⋄ St Catherine the Virgin and Martyr RC parish ⋄ Kruszwicatoday: Kruszwica gm., Inowrocław pov., Kuyavia‐Pomerania voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
RC deanery

c. 1925 – 1938

priest — Dalkitoday: neighborhood in Gniezno, Gniezno urban gm., Gniezno pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.12.18]
⋄ RC chapel (public oratory)Gnieznotoday: Gniezno urban gm., Gniezno pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.12.18]
, St Lawrence the Martyr RC parish ⋄ Gnieznotoday: Gniezno urban gm., Gniezno pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.12.18]
RC deanery

1921 – 1938

director — Dalkitoday: neighborhood in Gniezno, Gniezno urban gm., Gniezno pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.12.18]
⋄ Catholic People's University — also: founder of several such olk universities, i.a. in Dalki (the first one in Poland), Zagórze, Bolszewo and Odolanów

1918 – 1933

director — People's Reading Rooms Society — in free Poland

1919 – 1922

parliamentary deputy — Legislative Seym of the Second Polish Republic

1912 – 1918

General secretary — People's Reading Rooms Society — during the German partition times

1912 – c. 1924

prebendary — Pniewytoday: Pniewy gm., Szamotuły pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
⋄ Holy Spirit RC church ⋄ St Lawrence the Martyr RC parish ⋄ Lwówektoday: Lwówek gm., Nowy Tomyśl pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2020.11.27]
RC deanery

1912

vicar — Psarskietoday: Pniewy gm., Szamotuły pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
⋄ Blessed Virgin Mary of the Assumption RC parish ⋄ Lwówektoday: Lwówek gm., Nowy Tomyśl pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2020.11.27]
RC deanery

1910 – 1911

vicar — Ostrów Wielkopolskitoday: Ostrów Wielkopolski urban gm., Ostrów Wielkopolski pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.06.07]
⋄ St Stanislav the Bishop and Martyr RC parish ⋄ Ostrów Wielkopolskitoday: Ostrów Wielkopolski urban gm., Ostrów Wielkopolski pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.06.07]
RC deanery

1908 – 1910

vicar — Ostrzeszówtoday: Ostrzeszów gm., Ostrzeszów pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.05.30]
⋄ Blessed Virgin Mary of the Assumption RC parish ⋄ Ostrzeszówtoday: Ostrzeszów gm., Ostrzeszów pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.05.30]
RC deanery

1907 – 1908

vicar — Buktoday: Buk gm., Poznań pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.06.20]
⋄ St Stanislav the Bishop and Martyr RC parish ⋄ Buktoday: Buk gm., Poznań pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.06.20]
RC deanery

1904 – 1907

vicar — Lubasztoday: Lubasz gm., Czarnków/Trzcianka pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.06.20]
⋄ Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary RC parish ⋄ Czarnkówtoday: Czarnków gm., Czarnków/Trzcianka pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.06.20]
RC deanery

till 1903

student — Gnieznotoday: Gniezno urban gm., Gniezno pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.12.18]
⋄ philosophy and theology, Archbishop's Practical Theological Seminary (Lat. Seminarium Clericorum Practicum)

student — Poznańtoday: Poznań city pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
⋄ philosophy and theology, Archbishop's Theological Seminary (Collegium Leoninum)

editor — magazines — „Friend of Children” (1911‐1917) and „Friend of Youth” (1911‐1915), also founder

membership — Poznańtoday: Poznań city pov., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
⋄ Historical Committee, Friends of Sciences Society

activist — social and political

others related
in death

CIEMNIAKClick to display biography Louis, DEMSKIClick to display biography Vladislav, FARULEWSKIClick to display biography Thaddeus, GOTOWICZClick to display biography Louis, KOMPFClick to display biography January, KUBICKIClick to display biography Telesphorus, KUBSKIClick to display biography Stanislav, ŁÓJClick to display biography John, MATUSZEWSKIClick to display biography Francis, MĄKOWSKIClick to display biography John, MULLERClick to display biography Joseph Stanislav Kostka, NIEMIRClick to display biography Joseph, POMIANOWSKIClick to display biography Vladislav, SCHOENBORNClick to display biography Steven, SKOWRONClick to display biography Casimir, STREHLClick to display biography Mieczyslav, SZUKALSKIClick to display biography John, WĄSOWICZClick to display biography Sigismund, WŁODARCZYKClick to display biography Ignatius

murder sites
camp 
(+ prisoner no)

TA Hartheim: From 05.1940, in the Germ. Tötungsanstalt (Eng. Killing/Euthanasia Center) TA Hartheim, at the Schloss Hartheim castle in Alkoven in Upper Austria, belonging to KL Mauthausen‐Gusen complex of concentration camps, as part of «Aktion T4» program, the Germans murdered victims — people mentally retarded and disabled — in gas chambers with carbon monoxide. Till 24.08.1941 and the formal end of the «Aktion T4» program, c. 18,000 people were murdered in TA Hartheim. In 04.1941 the program was extended to include concentration camp prisoners. Most, if not all, of the murdered clergy from the KL Dachau concentration camp were taken to TA Hartheim in the so‐called Germ. „Invalidentransport” (Eng. „transport of invalids”), prisoners who were sick and, according to the Germans, „unable to work” (initially under the pretext of transfer to a better camp) — after the formal end of «Aktion T4» as part of the program codenamed «Aktion 14 f 13». It is estimated that at this stage — until 11.12.1944 — c. 12,000 prisoners were gassed at TA Hartheim.
Note: The dates of death of victims murdered in Schloss Hartheim indicated in the „White Book” are the dates of deportations from the last concentration camp the victims where held in. The real dates of death are unknown — apart from c. 49 priests whose names were included in the niem. „Invalidentransports”, but who did not arrive at TA Hartheim. Prob. perished on the day of transport, somewhere between KL Dachau and Munich, and their bodies were thrown out of the transport and cremated in Munich. The investigation conducted by Polish Institute of National Remembrance IPN concluded, that the other victims were murdered immediately upon arrival in Schloss Hartheim, bodies cremated and the ashes spread over local fields and into Danube river. In order to hide details of the genocide Germans falsified both dates of death (for instance those entered into KL Dachau concentration camp books, which are presented in „White Book” as alternative dates of death) and their causes. (more on: ipn.gov.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2019.05.30]
, en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2019.05.30]
)

«Aktion T4»: German state euthanasia program, systematic murder of people mentally retarded, chronically, mentally and neurologically ill — „elimination of live not worth living” (Germ. „Vernichtung von lebensunwertem Leben”). At a peak, in 1940‐1941, c. 70,000 people were murdered, including patients of psychiatric hospitals in German occupied Poland — German formalists noted then that, among others, „performing disinfection [i.e. gassing] of 70,273 people with a life expectancy of up to 10 years saved food in the amount of 141,775,573.80 Deutschmark”. From 04.1941 also mentally ill and „disabled” (i.e. unable to work) prisoners held in German concentration camps were included in the program — denoted then as «Aktion 14 f 13». C. 20,000 inmates were then murdered, including Polish Catholic priests held in KL Dachau concentration camp, who were murdered in Hartheim gas chambers. The other „regional extension” of «Aktion T4» was «Aktion Brandt» program during which Germans murdered chronically ill patients in order to make space for wounded soldiers. It is estimated that at least 30,000 were murdered in this program. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2014.10.31]
)

KL Dachau (prisoner no: 22576Click to display biography): KL Dachau in German Bavaria, set up in 1933, became the main German Germ. Konzentrationslager (Eng. concentration camp) KL for Catholic priests and religious during World War II: On c. 09.11.1940, Reichsführer‐SS Heinrich Himmler, head of the SS, Gestapo and German police, as a result of the Vatican's intervention, decided to transfer all clergymen detained in various concentration camps to KL Dachau camp. The first major transports took place on 08.12.1940. In KL Dachau Germans held approx. 3,000 priests, including 1,800 Poles. The priests were forced to slave labor in the Germ. „Die Plantage” — the largest herb garden in Europe, managed by the genocidal SS, consisting of many greenhouses, laboratory buildings and arable land, where experiments with new natural medicines were conducted — for many hours, without breaks, without protective clothing, no food. They slaved in construction, e.g. of camp's crematorium. In the barracks ruled hunger, freezing cold in the winter and suffocating heat during the summer, especially acute in 1941‐1942. Prisoners suffered from bouts of illnesses, including tuberculosis. Many were victims of murderous „medical experiments” — in 11.1942 c. 20 were given phlegmon injections; in 07.1942 to 05.1944 c. 120 were used by for malaria experiments. More than 750 Polish clerics where murdered by the Germans, some brought to Schloss Hartheim euthanasia centre and murdered in gas chambers. At its peak KL Dachau concentration camps’ system had nearly 100 slave labour sub‐camps located throughout southern Germany and Austria. There were c. 32,000 documented deaths at the camp, and thousands perished without a trace. C. 10,000 of the 30,000 inmates were found sick at the time of liberation, on 29.04.1945, by the USA troops… (more on: www.kz-gedenkstaette-dachau.deClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2013.08.10]
, en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2016.05.30]
)

KL Sachsenhausen: In Germ. Konzentrationslager (Eng. concentration camp) KL Sachsenhausen, set up in the former Olympic village in 07.1936, hundreds of Polish priests were held in 1940, before being transported to KL Dachau. Some of them perished in KL Sachsenhausen. Murderous medical experiments on prisoners were carried out in the camp. In 1942‐1944 c. 140 prisoners slaved at manufacturing false British pounds, passports, visas, stamps and other documents. Other prisoners also had to do slave work, for Heinkel aircraft manufacturer, AEG and Siemens among others. On average c. 50,000 prisoners were held at any time. Altogether more than 200,000 inmates were in jailed in KL Sachsenhausen and its branched, out of which tens of thousands perished. Prior to Russian arrival mass evacuation was ordered by the Germans and c. 80,000 prisoners were marched west in so‐called „death marches” to other camps, i.e. KL Mauthausen‐Gusen and KL Bergen‐Belsen. The camp got liberated on 22.04.1945. After end of armed hostilities Germans set up there secret camp for German prisoners and „suspicious” Russian soldiers. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2018.11.18]
)

KL Stutthof: In German Germ. Konzentrationslager (Eng. concentration camp) KL Stutthof (then in Eastern Prussian belonging to Germany, today: Sztutowo village) concentration camp, that Germans started to build on 02.09.1939, a day after German invasion of Poland and start of the World War II, Germans held c. 110,000‐127,000 prisoners from 28 countries, including 49,000 women and children. C. 65,000 victims were murdered and exterminated. In the period of 25.01‐27.04.1945 in the face of approaching Russian army Germans evacuated the camp. When on 09.05.1945 Russians soldiers entered the camp only 100 prisoners were still there. In an initial period (1939‐1940) Polish Catholic priests from Pomerania were held captive there before being transported to KL Dachau concentration camp. Some of them were murdered in KL Stutthof or vicinity (for instance in Stegna forest). Also later some Catholic priests were held in KL Stutthof. (more on: stutthof.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2018.11.18]
, en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2013.07.06]
)

ZL Neufahrwasser: Germ. Zivilgefangenenlager (Eng. POW camp for civilians) organized by the Germans on the day of the outbreak of the war, on 01.09. 1939, in Gdańsk ‐ Nowy Port (New Port), in former artillery barracks belonging to Poland, for Poles from Pomerania arrested as part of the «Intelligenzaktion» action — extermination of Polish intelligentsia. Prisoners from ZL Neufahrwasser — 2,702 people were identified, but it is estimated that c. 10,000 arrestees passed through the camp — were sent to the KL Stutthof concentration camp or directly to the places of extermination. The camp operated till 01.04.1940 (more on: stutthof.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2013.08.10]
, ofiaromwojny.republika.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2013.12.04]
)

Górna Grupa: From 10.1939 till approx. 04.1940 in Górna Grupa in Divine Word Missionaries SVD congregation house Germans organised — as part of «Intelligenzaktion», extermination of Polish intelligentsia in Pomerania — a transit camp for Poles, including 95 priests, from Świecie, Bydgoszcz, Chełmno, Grudziądz and Starogard Gdański counties. Approx. of them perished, including 17 that were subsequently executed in Mnichek‐Grupa. In the same place in 1945 Russians set up a concentration camp for Germans, among whom two priests perished. (more on: pl.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2021.12.19]
, www.kpbc.ukw.edu.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2013.12.27]
)

Świecie: Detention centre run by Germans. Many of the prisoners were prob. also held in the buildings of the National Pomeranian Psychiatric Institute in Świecie, particulary after 22.10.1939 when Germans murdered most of its patients. Most of the prisoners in 1939 Germans took to Mniszek‐Grupa and executed. (more on: pl.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2021.12.19]
)

Świecie (Institute): In the autumn of 1939 Germans— as part of «Aktion T4» program — murdered almost all patients of the National Pomeranian Psychiatric Institute in Świecie. On 15‐21.10.1939 c. 1,000 patients were murdered in the forest by Mniszek village, in groups of 60. Among the victims were 120 children. And hospital’s Polish director, Joseph Bednarz PhD, who stayed with his patients till the end. The victims were pushed — three aside — into specially prepared ditches and shot by the members of the genocidal German SS‐Wachsturmbann „Eimann” unit from machine guns. C. 300 patients were transported to Kocborowo psychiatric hospital and murdered later in Szpęgawsk forest. (more on: ipn.gov.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2015.05.09]
)

Inowrocław: German prison and detention center. In 1939, the Germans held there hundreds of Poles from Inowrocław and the surrounding area, arrested as part of the «Intelligenzaktion» program — the physical extermination of the Polish intelligentsia and leadership classes. By 11.1939, 546 of them were murdered in the prison and the surrounding area, including 56 people on the night of 22‐23.10.1939. Later, it was also a place of execution for many Poles. After the Russian occupation began in 1945, the communist prison, also for women. (more on: www.inowroclawfakty.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2013.05.19]
)

02.11.1939 arrests (Inowrocław): On c. 01.11.1939 Germans „invited” local priests from Inowrocław and vicinity for a meeting on 02.11.1939 to „discuss terms and condition of collaboration with new authorities”. All present — 39 priests — were arrested on the spot and sent to concentration camps and execution sites.

«Intelligenzaktion»: (Eng. „Action Intelligentsia”) — extermination program of Polish elites, mainly intelligentsia, executed by the Germans right from the start of the occupation in 09.1939 till around 05.1940, mainly on the lands directly incorporated into Germany but also in the so‐called General Governorate where it was called «AB‐aktion». During the first phase right after start of German occupation of Poland implemented as Germ. Unternehmen „Tannenberg” (Eng. „Tannenberg operation”) — plan based on proscription lists of Poles worked out by (Germ. Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen), regarded by Germans as specially dangerous to the German Reich. List contained names of c. 61,000 Poles. Altogether during this genocide Germans methodically murdered c. 50,000 teachers, priests, landowners, social and political activists and retired military. Further 50,000 were sent to concentration camps where most of them perished. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2014.10.04]
)

Ribbentrop‐Molotov: Genocidal Russian‐German alliance pact between Russian leader Joseph Stalin and German leader Adolf Hitler signed on 23.08.1939 in Moscow by respective foreign ministers, Mr. Vyacheslav Molotov for Russia and Joachim von Ribbentrop for Germany. The pact sanctioned and was the direct cause of joint Russian and German invasion of Poland and the outbreak of the World War II in 09.1939. In a political sense, the pact was an attempt to restore the status quo ante before 1914, with one exception, namely the „commercial” exchange of the so‐called „Kingdom of Poland”, which in 1914 was part of the Russian Empire, fore Eastern Galicia (today's western Ukraine), in 1914 belonging to the Austro‐Hungarian Empire. Galicia, including Lviv, was to be taken over by the Russians, the „Kingdom of Poland” — under the name of the General Governorate — Germany. The resultant „war was one of the greatest calamities and dramas of humanity in history, for two atheistic and anti‐Christian ideologies — national and international socialism — rejected God and His fifth Decalogue commandment: Thou shall not kill!” (Abp Stanislav Gądecki, 01.09.2019). The decisions taken — backed up by the betrayal of the formal allies of Poland, France and Germany, which on 12.09.1939, at a joint conference in Abbeville, decided not to provide aid to attacked Poland and not to take military action against Germany (a clear breach of treaty obligations with Poland) — were on 28.09.1939 slightly altered and made more precise when a treaty on „German‐Russian boundaries and friendship” was agreed by the same murderous signatories. One of its findings was establishment of spheres of influence in Central and Eastern Europe and in consequence IV partition of Poland. In one of its secret annexes agreed, that: „the Signatories will not tolerate on its respective territories any Polish propaganda that affects the territory of the other Side. On their respective territories they will suppress all such propaganda and inform each other of the measures taken to accomplish it”. The agreements resulted in a series of meeting between two genocidal organization representing both sides — German Gestapo and Russian NKVD when coordination of efforts to exterminate Polish intelligentsia and Polish leading classes (in Germany called «Intelligenzaktion», in Russia took the form of Katyń massacres) where discussed. Resulted in deaths of hundreds of thousands of Polish intelligentsia, including thousands of priests presented here, and tens of millions of ordinary people,. The results of this Russian‐German pact lasted till 1989 and are still in evidence even today. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2015.09.30]
)

Pius XI's encyclicals: Facing the creation of two totalitarian systems in Europe, which seemed to compete with each other, though there were more similarities than contradictions between them, Pope Pius XI issued in 03.1937 (within 5 days) two encyclicals. In the „Mit brennender Sorge” (Eng. „With Burning Concern”) published on 14.03.1938, condemned the national socialism prevailing in Germany. The Pope wrote: „Whoever, following the old Germanic‐pre‐Christian beliefs, puts various impersonal fate in the place of a personal God, denies the wisdom of God and Providence […], whoever exalts earthly values: race or nation, or state, or state system, representatives of state power or other fundamental values of human society, […] and makes them the highest standard of all values, including religious ones, and idolizes them, this one […] is far from true faith in God and from a worldview corresponding to such faith”. On 19.03.1937, published „Divini Redemptoris” (Eng. „Divine Redeemer”), in which criticized Russian communism, dialectical materialism and the class struggle theory. The Pope wrote: „Communism deprives man of freedom, and therefore the spiritual basis of all life norms. It deprives the human person of all his dignity and any moral support with which he could resist the onslaught of blind passions […] This is the new gospel that Bolshevik and godless communism preaches as a message of salvation and redemption of humanity”… Pius XI demanded that the established human law be subjected to the natural law of God , recommended the implementation of the ideal of a Christian state and society, and called on Catholics to resist. Two years later, National Socialist Germany and Communist Russia came together and started World War II. (more on: www.vatican.vaClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2023.05.28]
, www.vatican.vaClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2023.05.28]
)

Greater Poland Uprising: Military insurrection of Poles of former German Germ. Posen Provinz (Eng. Poznań province) launched against German Reich in 1918‐1919 — after the abdication on 09.11.1918 of the German Emperor William II Hohenzollern; after the armistice between the Allies and Germany signed on 11.1.1918 in the HQ wagon in Compiègne, the headquarters of Marshal of France Ferdinand Foch — which de facto meant the end of World War I — against the German Weimar Republic, established on the ruins of the German Empire, aiming to incorporate lands captured by Prussia during partitions of Poland in XVIII century into Poland, reborn in 1918. Started on 27.12.1918 in Poznań and ended on 16.02.1919 with the armistice in Trier (which included provisions ordering the Germans to stop their actions against Poland), which meant a de facto Polish victory. Many Polish priests took part in the Uprising, both as chaplains of the insurgents units and members and leaders of the Polish agencies and councils set up in the areas covered by the Uprising. In 1939 after German invasion of Poland and start of the World War II those priests were particularly persecuted by the Germans and majority of them were murdered. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2016.08.14]
)

sources

personal:
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[access: 2013.05.19]
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[access: 2013.07.06]
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[access: 2016.05.30]
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[access: 2013.07.06]
, arolsen-archives.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2019.05.30]

bibliographical:
Martyrology of the Polish Roman Catholic clergy under nazi occupation in 1939‐1945”, Victor Jacewicz, John Woś, vol. I‐V, Warsaw Theological Academy, 1977‐1981
original images:
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[access: 2015.09.30]
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, www.wtg-gniazdo.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
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[access: 2015.09.30]

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